We grow up, and humans need to learn. We utilize specialization to become completely human (Fischer & Immordino-Yang, 2008, p.xvii).
Learning is a constant process throughout an organism's life. Humans learn from birth until death. Every day, humans discover something new, retaining a unique talent to tackle new challenges. It is a mental process that alters behaviour, permanently alters an individual's or an organism's existence, and responds appropriately in a given environment. Woodworth (1952) sees learning as an activity and a growth process. Exercise, he claims, strengthens the movement. But exercise alone does not contribute to one's understanding. To learn, one must acquire new knowledge.
Thus, learning is defined variously. According to psychological definitions, learning is a change in behaviour or potential behaviour due to experience.' (Smith, 1993) A change in behaviour as a result of experience, according to Harriman 1947, is learning. Kimble (1961) defines learning as a more or less permanent change in behaviour caused by experience. Russell (1952) defines learning as a change in behaviour due to experience. It is stated by Hilgard and Bower (1975) that learning refers to changes in a subject's behaviour in a specific circumstance and that these changes should not be attributed to innate response tendencies, maturity, states of exhaustion, or medications.
In 1992, American author Peter Senge popularized' learning organizations.' A personal, qualitative approach to learning, he says
We reinvent ourselves via learning. Learning allows us to do things we couldn't do before. Knowledge helps us understand the world and our place in it. Learning increases our ability to produce and participate in the life-giving process. We all have a great desire for this form of education.
Learning is used to define a process that seeks to satisfy needs and achieve goals. According to Malcolm Knowles (1973), "learning is the process of changing, shaping, or controlling behaviour."
"Learning occurs when people engage with information (materials, activities, experiences). Real-world application happens when learners are motivated to change and successfully integrate their learning into real-world situations. (1978) Also, according to this definition, "learning is dependent on forming connections that tie the new to the familiar" (Botkin, 1979).
Learning is defined as acquiring skills, information, understanding, and qualities. ...when the process of learning moves from experience to reflect on occasion, so that a pattern or framework allows the learner to grasp the meaning of the learning in the mind's eye, and finally, when the learning moves to a facility to use language, rules, laws, and principles for accuracy and efficiency in thinking, doing, and fur
Constructive rather than receptive learning (Glaser 1991). Constructivism teaches that knowledge is gained via experiences and interactions with the environment and that existing information is used to build new knowledge. So the learner is in charge of developing knowledge and comprehension. In a constructivist classroom, the teacher is a guide or facilitator who helps pupils learn.
Early research on learning transfer was influenced by hypotheses highlighting the similarities between learning and transfer situations. Thorndike (1913) proposed that the degree of transfer between earlier and later learning is determined by the aspects that match. Writing letters of the alphabet is important for writing words (vertical transfer). Klausmeier (1985) suggested that teaching information and abilities in school topics that have features identical to activities experienced in the transfer environment might enhance transfer. Negative transfer occurs when familiarity with one set of events hurts performance in related activities (Luchins and Luchins, 1970).
A neutral stimulus gets conditioned to elicit a response by repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, as explained by teach pioneers Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson (Schunk, 2012). Fear and anxiety are typically defined by classical conditioning. This paradigm implies that pupils should be exposed to academic learning in situations that produce positive emotions rather than negative ones (Omrod, 1999).
Incorporating the Laws of Learning into education
Edward L. Thorndike proposed "Laws of Learning" in the early 1900s. These laws are ready, exercised, and effective.
It emphasizes that we cannot learn until we are prepared. When one is ready to perform or learn, one does so more successfully and with more enjoyment. Woodworth calls the ready a mentality. So readiness is a mental state where a youngster can learn lessons when motivated to do so. The teacher's most essential role is to prepare students to learn.
Thorndike's Law of Exercise has two elements
Laws of Use and Disuse A changeable relationship between a condition and a reaction strengthens the connection, according to the Law of Use. "When a modifiable link is not created between a condition and reaction, over time, that connection's strength decreases," the Law of Disuse explains. Thorndike agreed with William James and wrote:
Thorndike asserts that the concept of effect is the fundamental law of education. The law claims that "pleasant or fulfilling results tend to be repeated." When a reaction has unpleasant effects, it tends to be eliminated." The relationship between circumstance and response rises with happy outcomes and lessens with unhappiness.
Serial learning occurs when each thing helps recall the next. Ebbinghaus invented serial education in 1885.
Serial learning has been studied in three significant ways.
Ebbinghaus designed a distant association experiment in 1885. In serial learning, every item is connected with every other thing in the list, and the strength of the association is inversely proportional to the distance between the objects.
Lepley 1934 attempted to explain remote forward linkages using conditioned response theories. Hull 1935 proposed that each item in a verbal sequence leaves a stimulus record in the organism that weakens over time. Later things are concurrent with his trail and hence related to distant objects. On the other hand, the stimulus item is still being reacted to while the remote response item is offered.
Various researches were conducted to evaluate the effect of functional stimulus in serial learning, and Underwood 1963 examined these studies. According to Young's 1961 specificity theory, the item immediately before the answer is the practical stimulus in serial learning. Except for the first and last items, each item in this phenomenon serves as a reaction and an inspiration.
Positional effect in serial
The serial location effect is a serial learning phenomenon. Mistakes are plotted against the list's serial locations in a serial learning curve. Two phenomena emerged from the ordinal distribution of mistakes. The centre spots are most densely populated in error distribution, while the density decreases toward the list's ends. 2) Skewness refers to the fact that the peak of the mistake concentration is frequently not in the centre of the list but somewhat to the right.
Serial learning theory
According to Ebbinghaus, serial learning is dominated by S-R unit bonds. With backward and forward connections, Ebbinghaus explained why serial learning curves bend. Most remote associations are in the centre of the list, causing more mistakes than the endpoints.
The Lepley-Hull hypothesis proposes that each stimulus item in a sequence is linked to subsequent reactions via conditioned responses. To explain the form of the serial position curve, Lapely-Hull ascribed it to the effect of inhibitory inclinations established during learning.
Suggested by Voss (1968, 1969) was a two-stage. This is called the response learning stage. After learning an object, it is placed along a temporal or spatial dimension.
Assumption: Serial learning provides a subject with an ordered sequence of elements that do not elicit one another like a chain of associations. They highlighted a second procedure involving an active memory search for serial information.
Get LiveWebTutors Help!
Our academic professionals are here to help you with any writing assignment. From short essay proposals to complete dissertations, we offer a service to suit your demands.
Author: Jack Samule
Profile: Assignment Help Expert associated with LiveWebTutors