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Oxford Referencing Generator

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Oxford Referencing Style

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Example References For Blog.

Example Blog Reference

Example In-Text Citation for A Blog Reference

referance

Introduction to Harvard Referencing Generator

A reference list is said to be a complete list that contains all the sources that are used to create a particular piece of work. Referencing allows a writer to acknowledge the piece of work of the other writers that he has used in his own content. In other words, by providing the references at the end of the work, a writer gives the credit to another writer for borrowing his thoughts and views on a particular topic. One such style of referencing which is popularly used by most of the writers is known as the Harvard Referencing Style.

This type of referencing style is known as the author-date system of referencing. This Referencing guide will provide you the detailed knowledge about the Harvard Referencing style and how to cite the various sources in your assignments.

Basics of Harvard Referencing

If you also remain confused regarding the Harvard Referencing Style and its various types of citation then this guide can prove to be a helpful source for you to learn about the various styles of citations that can be followed while generating the content on Harvard Referencing.

There are a number of small details that need to be considered while putting the references and citations to your work. Being a student, it becomes more important to put the relevant and adequate references and citations to exhibit the research efforts that you have put into your work. To put the references in Harvard style to your work, it must:

  • Be on the separate sheet of the document
  • Be at the end of the document
  • Be in the alphabetical order
  • Be doubled-spaced (if no instruction is given regarding spacing)
  • Should be a full and a complete reference

Sources

To write a piece of work, you always need to have certain sources from which you can borrow some information. There are a number of sources from where you can take help for writing your piece of work. These sources are:

  • Journal Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • TV Broadcast
  • Personal Interview
  • Books and its chapters
  • E-mails
  • Web Page
  • Social Media Sources
  • Images and Videos
  • Website

Citations in Harvard Referencing

In-text are the crucial part while putting the references to your piece of work. It helps to show you that from where you have got the information for your work. It is a vital part because it helps to define the credibility of your paper and work. Along with this, the in-text citations also help to avoid any issues related to plagiarism. Therefore, it can be said that in-text citations should be used because of the below given broad reasons:

  • To acknowledge the author whose thoughts and views you have used in your work
  • To provide the credibility to the statistics, data and the percentage related information used in your work
  • To address the direct quotes of the authors used in your work
  • To address the facts that are considered to be of common knowledge and are used by most of the people

Rules to follow for In-text Citations

In-text citations are provided within the main body of the whole content. It can be used to acknowledge any of the quotes of the author and can also be used to acknowledge the paraphrased information of the authors. While providing the in-text citations, the full reference is not to be given. The full reference is always given at the end of the content under the broad headings of References. In the Harvard referencing, In-text references incorporate the surname of the author or the editor, year of its publication and the page number(s).

Example: Sullivan (2019, p. 182) or (Sullivan, 2019, p. 182) or (Sullivan, 2019, pp. 182-190)

Note: p. refers to a single page

  1. refers to a range of pages

There is a wide range of sources which you can cite in your piece of work such as journals, periodicals, articles, websites, books and various other internet sources. While incorporating the In-text citations in Harvard style, the following aspects should be kept in mind:

  • Citations should always be in brief to that of the whole reference
  • It should carry the year of the publication
  • It should exhibit throughout the paper
  • When the respective author of the particular piece of work cannot be identified, the terms such as ‘Anon’ or ‘Anonymous’ can be used along with the publication date.

Referencing and Citing Books in Harvard Style

Citing Book with Single Author

The basic format or the structure for referencing and citing a book written by a single author is:

Author’s last name, First name. (Year). Chapter title. Edition. Place of publication:  Publisher.

Examples:

Gibson, A, 2017. Business Law. 10th edition. Sydney: Pearson

Rose, M.T., 2000. The simple book: an introduction to the management of protocols (Vol. 2). Englewood. Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Citations: (Gibson, 2017, p. 87)

                  (Rose, 2000, pp. 100-120)

Citing Books with two and multiple authors

For citing the work of another person in Harvard style, the following format can be used:

Last name of the author, First name, Last name of the author, First initial., and Last name of the author, First initial. (Year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Nevillee, C. and Payer, A. (1990). Financial Instruments.

Mitchell, F., Evans, D. and Jackson, T. (2010). Electronic Engineering Service. Nottingham: Nigamber Publications.

Citations: (Nevillee and Payer, 1990, p. 25)

                 (Mitchell, Evans and Jackson, 2010, pp. 26-27)

Note: In case if there are more than 3 Authors, you must write the first name of the author and then it should be followed by et al. There is no requirement to write the name of other authors when you have used the work et al.

Note: et al. is the Latin phrase et alia which defines the meaning “and others”.

Example:

Reference: Mitchell, F., Evans, D., Miller, O. and Jackson, T. (2010). Electronic Engineering Service. Nottingham: Nigamber Publications.

Citation: (Mitchell, et al., 2010, pp. 26-27)

Citing Books by Organization or Corporate Author

Corporate Authors are the organisations or the government bodies that do not mention the name of the author on the front of the books. Therefore, to refer and cite these types of books in your piece of work, you can use the corporate authors.

Example:

PROTECTION, C. and COALITION, N.G.O., 2006. Working for sustainability and Suitability among the Orphanages in Western Europe Organisations.

Citation: (PROTECTION and COALITION, 2006)

Citing Book without Any Author

There are the times when you won’t be able to get the details of the author of the particular book. The referencing and citations for those types of books can be done by using the name of the book.

Example:

Encyclopedia of Religion, 1995. Macmillan, London, pp. 1-52.

Citation: (Encyclopedia of Religion, 1995, p. 48)

Citing Chapter from an Edited Book

Edited books are known as the collection of the chapters written by different authors. Under this type of reference and citations, instead of the name of the author, the name of the editor can be used. The following format/Structure can be used:

Editor last name(s), first name(s). (eds.), Year. Title. Edition. Publication Place: Name of the publisher(s)

Example:

St-Michel, W., 2015. Morgan Borongon and SONG Tianing (eds), On the Planned Corruptions Against Mortality Agreement, pp. 98-102.

Citation: (St-Michel, 2015, pp. 98-102)

Referencing and Citing Articles in Harvard Style

Journal Article

Journal articles are the piece of work written on one specific topic and are shorter than that of the whole book. If you want to use the work from any of the Journal articles, the following structure or format of referencing and citation can be used.

Author names. (Year) ‘Article Title’, Volume (issue), pages. 

Example:       

Fisher, E.F., 2001. Tale as a human message standard: The occasion of community ethical argument. Infrastructures Articles51(1), pp.1-22.

Citation: (Fisher, 2001, p. 20)

Newspaper Articles

Many times, you will like to use the work of the author published in the newspaper. At those times, the following format or the structure of references and citations can be used. Under this structure, instead of volumes and issue number, the edition and the date of publication can be used. The general structure is:

Last name of Author(s), First name of Author(s), Year. ‘Article Title’, Title of Newspaper (edition), page(s).

Example:

Tornit, F. and Smith, M.O., 2014. The memorandum offered explanation for the use of agony. Washington Post9(05), p.4.

Citation: (Tornit and Smith, 2014, p. 4)

Online Database

The following format can be used for putting references and citations for online databases.

Last name of author(s), First name of the author(s). Year. Article Title. Journal Title, Volume or (issue no), page [Online] Available at website address. [Accessed on (date)]

Example:

Fayaz, F. and Nisa, N.U. 2017. Online Marketing-a Tool to Improve the Efficacy of 4 Ps. [ONLINE] Available at https://plhfs.semanticicholar.org/699b/ea4b44a2733af8f066afa581ba488a06af08.pdf (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation: (Fayaz and Nisa, 2017, p. 86)

Note: Here the word [ONLINE] represents that the article is present in the electronic form. It is important to put the date to these articles to define that the information was correct at the time you were using and referencing it.

Special Issue

There are the Articles that are published in some special issues. These are considered General scholarly articles only but carry a special issue with them.

Example:

Dounias, F., Tsakonas, P., Hatas, J. and Michalopoulos, L., 2007. Familiarizing Mixture Of Computational Ability in Credit Management, submitted to the Int. Journal of “Executive and Decision Finances”, Special Issue on Credit Administration.

Citation: (Dounias, Tsakonas, Hatas and Michalopoulos, 2007, p. 82)

Magazine Articles

Articles from magazines can also be used for referencing and citing in your piece of work. Following is the generalised format or structure that can be used for putting the reference and citations in Harvard style.

Last name of the author (s), First name of the author (s). Year. Title of Article. Name of Magazine, volume, Page (s).

Example:

Fowler, O., Gamble, P.P., Hogan, L.N., Kogut, M., McComish, M. and Thorp, P., 2009. Conversation with the foe. Boston Globe, 28.

Citation: (Fowler, et al., 2009, p. 28)

Referencing and Citing Other Online Sources in Harvard Style

Websites:

Certain times you get the most relevant information from different websites. For that information also it becomes crucial for you to record the information of those websites with you to maintain a personal record. If the information provided on the website is in PDF form, then you should download that information and should make a record of it.

Along with this, it is also suggested for you to keep the URL’s of all the websites in the reference list of your piece of work so that the reader could easily locate the source from where the information is taken. For referencing and citing the websites in your piece of work, the following format or the structure can be used.

Last name of the author (s), First name of author (s). Year. Page/site Title. [Online] Available at: URL (Accessed on day/ month / year)

Example:

Alexandra, T., 2006. The 4 Ps [Online] Available at https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/four-ps.asp (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation: (Alexandra, 2006)

Columbus, L., 2006. Five Ways Big Data Is Transforming Advertising And Car boot sale [Online] Available at https://www.forbes.aus/sites/popelcolumbus/2017/04/08/five-ways-big-data-is-transforming-advertising-and- Car-boot-sale /#70ede6621cff (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation: (Columbus, 2006)

Note: There are a number of websites that do not carry the dates. In such cases, you can use n.d. in the date column.

Example:

Purpet. J., n.d. Big Data in Selling: 6 custom Gears. [Online] Available at https://www.inc.com/janed-tonitn/5-ways-big-data-is-changing -ptomotions.html (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation: (Purpet, n.d.)

E-Books

There are a number of books which are present on the online platforms. You can also take help from those books to find out the most relevant information. To address the source of the book, it is important to give the references and citation of the E-Book. The following format or structure can be used to refer and cite a book in your work.

Last name of the author (s), First name of the author (s). Year. Title of Book. Edition (if applicable) E-book. [Online] Available at (URL) or DOI (Accessed on date/ month/ year)

Example:

Hopkins, K., 2015. Getting sterilized in Brazil: stories of success and failureE-book2. [Online] Available at http://www.abep.org.br/publicacoes/index.php/ebook/article/viewFile/48/46 (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation:

(Hopkins, 2015, p. 6)

E-mails

If you have got any useful and relevant information through the mail and want to use it into your piece your work, then you can easily reference and cite that information into your piece of work using the following structure and format of Harvard referencing.

Last name of the sender, first name of Sender, Year. Subject Line of the mail. [E-mail]

Example:

Milter, P., 2013. Report on Diabetes. [E-mail]

Uliler. R. 2020. Plan for the Brand. [E-mail]

Citation:

(Milter, 2013)

(Uliler, 2020)

Social Media Sources

In the Harvard Style, you can also use any of the social media posts relevant to your content. The following format and structure of referencing and citations can be used.

Last name of the creator, First name of the creator. Title of the post / Source. [Online] Available at URL. (Accessed on date/ month/ year).

Example:

Obama, B., 2017. No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin or his background or his religion…/ Twitter. [Online] Available at http://pic.twitter.com/InZ58zkoAm (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

(Obama, 2017)

Videos

Images and Videos can also be referenced and cited in the Harvard style using the following structure or format.

Author/ director’s first name, Author’s / director’s last name. Year. Title of the Video/Image. Type, pages / studio. [Online] Available at URL. (Accessed on date / month/ year)

Example:

Berlow, E., 2010. Simplifying complexity. Video, [Online] Available at http://www.ted.com/talks/eric_berlow_how_complexity_leads_to_simplicity (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation: (Berlow, 2010)

Images

If you want to use any relevant image or photograph in your piece of your, then you can use the Harvard referencing to cite and refer that image or photograph. The general structure to follow is:

Last name of artist or photographer, First name of artist or photographer, Year. Image or photograph title. [Type]. (Details of document, Place: library or repository)

Example:

Keeva, C, 2017. How I Achieved Editorial Style Food. [Photograph]. (Keeva Indian restaurant food Photography, Francisco: Keeva Indian Kitchen)

Citation: (Keeva, 2017)

Maps

You can also refer and cite nay maps and related work to your document. To cite this you can follow the below-given structure or format:

Name of the map maker. (Year). Map title. Series, number, scale. Place: publisher

Example:

Beresford, M.W., 1986. Inclesmoor, West Riding of Yorkshire. Local maps and plans from medieval England. Oxford: Clarendon Press. L4l-61.

Podcasts

If you have got any relevant and useful information and wants to use it related to Podcasts, then you can also use that using the Harvard referencing style. The structure and format are as follows:

First name of the author, Last name of the author, Year. Program Title. Name of the Broadcaster: series title. [Source] [Online] Available at URL. (Accessed on date/ month/ year)

Example:

Radiomisfits, 2020. You Me & Sicily. [Podcast]. [Online] Available at https://you-me-sicily.myshopify.com/ (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation: (Radiomisfits, 2020)

Other Sources

There are several other sources that can be used to take information in your piece of work. These sources are:

Reports

First name of the author (s), Last name of the author (s), Year. Report Title. Place: Publication

Example:

Kimerling, J., 2001. International Standards in Ecuador's Amazon Oil Fields: The Privatization of Environmental Law. Colum. J. Envtl. L.26, p.289.

Citation: (Kimerling, 2001, p. 289)

Dissertations

First name of the author (s), Last name of the author (s), Year. Title of Dissertation. University name. [Online] Available at URL. (Accessed on date/ month/ year)

Example:

Lindgreen, A., 2017. Impact of Government Policies on Reducing Corporate Corruption and Unethical Practices. Harvard University. [Online] Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227280230_Corruption_and_Unethical_Behavior_Report_on_a_Set_of_Danish_Guidelines (Accessed on 29-01-2020)

Citation: (Lindgreen, 2017, pp. 25-64)

Interviews

Last name of the interviewee, First name of interviewee. And Last name of interviewer, first name of interviewer Year. Interview title. City, Page.

Example:

Vivan, B. and Boston, K. 2012. Employee Engagement initiatives.

Citation: (Vivan and Boston, 2012)

Presentations and Lectures

Last name of the author, first name of the author, Year. Title of Lecture.

Example:

Yung, R., 2008. Herbal benefits.

Citation: (Yung, 2008)

Music

Last name of the performer or writer, First name of the performer or writer, Year. Title of Music/ Recording. [Medium]. City: Label of music.

Example:

Muke, G., 1995. Delicious. [CD]. Washington: Music CD.

Citation: (Lucky, 1995)

Dictionaries

Entry, Year. Dictionary Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Fit, 2017. Cambridge advanced learner’s dictionary. Birmingham: detectable publications.

Citation: (Fit, 2017)