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Vancouver Referencing Style

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Example References For Book.

Example Book Reference

Example In-Text Citation for A Book Reference


The Perfect Guide to a Vancouver Style Referencing

Academic modules are an ingenious culmination of various assignments and tasks that students are required to accomplish with sheer brilliance and perfection. Yes, all these assignments are complicated and difficult to accomplish with absolute excellence. However, most of these assignments being the scholarly documents like dissertation, thesis, case studies, research papers, etc. the major problem or restriction that students face is regarding accomplishing these assignments along with all their attributes perfectly. Any scholarly document is not all about the content it carries instead it requires the students to create the document with proper structure and one such attribute of the structure that gets students confused is the creation of a referencing list, bibliography, citations, etc. Therefore, to help students in generating a perfect list of references and citations, we bring to you this article that deals with generating a Vancouver style referencing.

APA Referencing

What is Referencing and why is it important for Assignments like Dissertation and Thesis?

As we all are aware that academic assignments like case studies, dissertations, thesis, research papers, etc. are all research based scholarly documents that a student has to accomplish during his/her academic endeavour. Now the researches included in these assignments could be primary research, conducted by the student on own, or these could be researches or documents authored by other people. Now, when you use external sources of information in your article, for instance, using the research conducted by some other person, or using some information from a book, a journal, an article, etc. then you need to mention it in your document so as to make it credible and authentic. Now, you must think that what is the need of referencing, therefore we bring to some important insights on the need for accurate referencing:

  • While creating any academic piece of writing or a professional research paper, the candidate needs to include to some strong arguments, facts, information, to base his/her research on. And one has to include credible information to prove the validity of any claim being made. Therefore, referencing helps you in establishing that the sources you have used are authentic and relevant. Also, a good referencing is the need of a brilliant document as it proves that the candidate has based his/her document on standard and significant sources of information.
  • Also, when you provide an accurate referencing list, it gives your reader the leverage to fact check the information provided from the referenced source(s). Therefore, referencing reflects accountability and responsibility on one’s end.
  • And the main purpose of generating a reference list is to make the document free of any traces of plagiarism. If you use the information from some third source without mentioning the credits or referencing the source, then your work stands to be accused for plagiarism. Therefore, an adequate and accurate referencing list must be included in the document so as to make it authentic and free from any accusation of plagiarism.

Difference between References and Citations

This is the most common query with which many students approach us. We completely understand that there are many similar sounding and confusing attributes to a scholarly document which confuse students. The most common mistake that students often commit is to use the two distinct attributes of references and citations interchangeably and that creates problem. So, to make things a little clearer, let us see what these two attributes are and how are they different:

  • References: As we have discussed above, references are the sources that you have resorted to while producing a scholarly piece of work. These may be any vital information, facts, researches, datasets, etc.
  • Citations: These are the ideas owned by a third person that you want to use in your work. It may be a direct quote by some person, some clippings of an interview, etc. Citations are marked at the same place where being used while references could be clubbed together and listed at the separate place altogether.

How to Write References Accurately?

Now, coming to the main part of the article – writing a reference accurately. References are the standard way of mentioning a source used in a document and hence they have to be created following a standard template. Before, diving in to the details about writing various types of references, let us see what constitute as some of the common and most important sources used in any document:

  • Newspaper articles
  • Personal Interviews
  • Television broadcasts
  • Journal articles
  • Websites and webpages
  • Books
  • Reports

All these distinct sources require different style of referencing. However, some of the information being included in a reference remain common, and the essential information that must be accumulated before using the source in any document are:

  1. Title of the work being used.
  2. Name of Publisher/Broadcaster/Editor
  3. Volume number
  4. Issue Number
  5. Report Number
  6. Pages Number
  7. URLs (for online sources)

It must be remembered that the information cited in a reference must be accurate and authentic. Therefore, it is highly suggested to maintain a log of all the sources of information being used in a document and including the critical information related to them. A compact and accurate data of sources will help you in creating the referencing list more accurately and with ease.

Generating a Vancouver Style Referencing List

When a student is assigned with any scholarly document like a dissertation, a thesis, a research paper, a case study, etc. he/she is generally advised by the teacher to follow a set template. However, many a times, the task is assigned without mentioning the particulars about the details and this creates problems for the students. However, while accomplishing any research based document, there are many attributes to it which need perfect complication. And one such attribute which is essential to all the research documents are the referencing list. In lieu of any particular directive, the most common style of referencing adopted by professionals is the Vancouver style referencing list. This style has been considered as the most convenient and simple method of generating a referencing list. Some of the most prominent features of a Vancouver style of referencing are:

  • Vancouver style referencing is generally used ina medical or science based document. It abides by the rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
  • The prime feature of the Vancouver style referencing is that it requires to maintain a separate space for including references. The document must have a separate page of referencing list and it must be titled as ‘References’. The page usually has to appear at the end of the document.
  • In Vancouver style referencing, all the references are numbered in Arabic (1,2,3,4,…..) and in the order of their appearance in the text. Each reference mentioned in the document must accurately match its correspondent number in the reference list.
  • All the references included must contain the basic information about the source, such as the title of the main work, its edition details, authors’ name, issue number, etc.
  • While using Vancouver style of referencing, always be careful and maintain and follow the same pattern across the document. There should not be variations in the style of referencing as it might create confusion for the reader.

Important Referencing Pattern

By now, we have understood the importance of maintaining a reference list in a document. And to make the pattern of referencing more clearer to the students, we bring to you some important referencing patterns used for some common sources of information.

Reference of a Book: A book is the most common source of information while creating any document or working on an assignment, therefore, we bring to you the pattern of referencing a book in a document:

  • Name of the Author(s)
  • Title of the book
  • Edition
  • Place of Publication
  • Publisher
  • Year of Publication

Example: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy, United Kingdom, 1848.

Reference of a Book from online source: The pattern remains the same as above, just include the URL which you have used to gain access to the book.

Example: John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy, United Kingdom, 1848,

Reference of a Chapter in a Book: When one uses multiple information from the same book then it needs to be specified which chapter is being used in inferring the particular information. Therefore the pattern of the using a book chapter reference in a document is:

  • Author of the Book
  • Title of the Chapter
  • Title of the Book
  • Place of Publication
  • Year of Publication
  • Pages number of chapters used

Example: Daniel Kahneman, The Associative Machine, Thinking Fast and Slow, United States of America, 2011, p. 354 – 389.

Reference of a Journal Article: Journal articles are great source of information and are highly appreciated when included in a document. Therefore, we bring to you the right pattern to include a journal reference in your document:

  • Author
  • Title of journal article
  • Title of Journal
  • Year of Publication
  • Volume Number
  • Page number of the articles

Example: Arush Lal, Barbara Bulc, Marlene Joannie Bewa, Changing the Narrative: Responsibility for youth engagement is a two- way street, The Lancet, 2019, Vol 3, p. 673 – 675.

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