Organismal Biology Assignment Help
Biology is the study of living matter. This study is done at various levels like at molecular, cellular, organ, organ system and Organismal levels. Each level deciphers relevant information about the organism and its various functions. Culmination of all these studies results in new technologies at medicine and health front for making life easier and comfortable.
Organismal biology is the study of organism as a whole. It involves the study of structure, function, ecology and evolution of whole organism in a holistic manner. It is also known as functional biology. This field usually emphasizes the study of all kinds of organisms especially because of various evolutionary similarities in their structure and function. The field is divided on the basis of group of living organisms. It includes:
- Viruses: These are living protein structures which use the host machinery to survive and proliferate in environment. They are of various types depending on the nature of genome i.e. DNA viruses and RNA viruses.
- Unicellular organisms: This group is divided into two types on the basis of the presence of true nucleus i.e. prokaryotic (like bacteria, microbes, etc.) and eukaryotic (fungi, algae, protozoan, etc.) organisms.
- Multicellular organisms: This includes wide groups like plants, animals and fungi.
Organismal biology encompasses the study of these organisms at various levels.
- Developmental biology: This includes study of evolution and development of organisms.
- Physiology: This includes the study of basic functioning of all activities occurring in the organisms for its mere survival.
- Morphology and Anatomy: This includes study of structure of the organism as a whole.
Organismal biology involves various techniques like:
- Electron microscopy
- Fluorescence microscopy
- Molecular biology
- Cell biology
Various applications of studying Organismal biology are:
- Polymorphism studies: It is useful to study the mutations or polymorphisms or simple variations present within individual organisms and to unravel the functional consequences of these variations.
- Population genetics: It helps in establishing the evolutionary basis both within and between various clades. It is also useful to establish a genetic basis to such evolutionary patterns like mating and migration systems, immunological defenses, dispersal and behavioral differences.
- Disease etiology: this study helps in further understanding of etiology of various diseases caused by whole organisms like protozoan’s or microorganisms.
- Prevention and precautions: It helps in understanding various measures to be taken to prevent the disease.
- Drug discovery: Study of various functional aspects of an organism as a whole gives a chance to test various new drugs and discover new therapeutics.