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Public transport as a solution to urban transportation dispute.

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Transportation is one of the major causes of assorted urban issues such as urban traffic which is chaotic and its economic as well as social impact profound. In contrast with other urban issues faced by growing community, transportation system will deteriorate along with economic development. While sanitation, education and other sectors will improve as the economic sector improved. There are five constituents regarding transportation: Human – who needs transportation Goods – which needed by human Vehicles – as transport medium Road – as transportation infra...

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Transportation is one of the major causes of assorted urban issues such as urban traffic which is chaotic and its economic as well as social impact profound. In contrast with other urban issues faced by growing community, transportation system will deteriorate along with economic development. While sanitation, education and other sectors will improve as the economic sector improved. There are five constituents regarding transportation: Human – who needs transportation Goods – which needed by human Vehicles – as transport medium Road – as transportation infrastructure Organisation – as transport administrator (Sukarto, 2006) Those transport issues originate from the unwell-planned urban spatial and also from population growth that is not spread evenly across the city. The demographic of the area has a significant influence on the ability of the transportation system to serve the needs of the community. Despite high population growth due to birth rate, degree of urbanization also plays a role in transportation system in urban areas. As matter of fact, Australia has 89% of total population in 2010 and its rate of urbanization is 1.2% annual rate of change within the period of 2010-2015 (Central Intelligence Agency, 2013). Its deficient transport infrastructure inaugurates a major barrier to the country’s continuous development. Other factor is the high dependence on private vehicle by which people prefer to use their own vehicles to travel since the public transport system in some areas is still not well-integrated. Public transports are often of poor quality, very crowded, low maintenance and their cost is not reflecting an array of those variables. Indirect outlay, such as pollution, road accidents and maintenance of public road infrastructure should are be factored in (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2011). Hence in purpose of making public transportation attractive and sustainable, the balance between service improvement, road user behavioural change and its infrastructure shall be achieved. Sustainable transport is not just about encouraging people to walk, cycle and to use public transport. It is about designing the transport system to make economic, social and environmental sense. The Brundtland (1987) Report defined sustainable development as “process of change in which the exploitation of resource, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development; and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations”. A sustainable transport system should: Meet the needs of present without compromising future generations’ ability to meet their own needs, in terms of social economic sector Locally and globally protect the environment in both short and long term Provide and promote lower carbon transport options Support improved health and safety (State Government of Victoria, Australia, 2013) Urban Transport in Developing Countries Role of transportation for economic endurance of a region is very valuable. An integrated system: efficient, less costly and helping the country’s economic development. Transport condition of a country is usually proportional to progress in development of the country itself. Developed countries like the United States, European, and Japan have a good transportation system. Contrary, for developing countries such as Indonesia and India, the management of the transport system is poorly manageable even though other countries such Australia and Singapore have already satisfactorily manage their transportation. Generally the problems that exist on the transport system in Indonesia are the high cost of transportation, delay in delivery of goods, the number of illegal levies, the old bureaucratic an convoluted logistics and inadequate infrastructure which leads to one major issue – congestion (Ali, 2012). Most of Indonesian people, especially in Jakarta, spent most of their time on the road due to relentless traffic congestion moreover during the peak hours. They can spend one or more hours just for a distance of 5km (Figure 1). Moreover, air pollution in Indonesia is proven considerably high which is a health threat for motorist and pedestrians that can lead to respiratory distress and decreased air quality. Pollution can be caused by the poor quality of public means of transport used in the region. Incomplete fuel combustion process will cause into deep black gas waste, especially on old vehicles. There needs to be an emission test for vehicles that are not up to standard. Plus there is a pattern of road network in Jakarta generally concentric linear since there is concentration of the connection between the city then spread linearly into the main roads linking the regions between functional areas and the number of major roads that connect between the region.

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Rural communities are one of those communities where density development is very low. People living per acre are also very low. In the rural and small town areas, we need a smarter and a more strategically approach towards the transportation system. The main system of the planning building and maintaining transportation infrastructure in the rural areas is not up to the mark to their local people as they cannot fulfill their needs of the education, jobs, healthcare, services etc due to the no access in their cities and the surroundings.  Public transportation is basically available in approximately sixty percent of the all rural countries nationwide that is for a total about 1200 systems. (Stommes, brown, and Houston, 2002)

In the geographic terms, urban areas are the areas where there is a relatively high density; it means more than 10 resident and more than 5 housing units per acre and there is mixed use of development and multi modal transportation system while in the rural areas, there is low density it means less than 2 resident per acre and 1 housing unit per acre. Here is a mostly land are undeveloped and farms are there. Because of the low density in the rural areas, there is mostly use of personal automobile rather than other alternative mode of transport. For example: - Dozens of the residents who mostly commute on their single occupant vehicles on the same road rather than public transport. Census data shows that the vehicle ownership rate is higher in rural America than in metro areas, with 92.7 percent of rural households having access to a car in 2000, compared to 88.9 percent for metro counties (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000)

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