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An Introduction to Project Management In any organization, problems arise when handling various projects. The solutions of these problems lead to change and adaptations within the organization. Projects are normally executed to carry out these changes towards successful completion and accomplishment. In this way, every project handles unique set of problems that arise in organizations which have different priorities and resources attached to them. In other words, a project relates to sequential planning of activities to meet certain defined objectives dedicated to attainment of a goal.Project management is the process of planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling all activities and functions of the project to meet defined project objectives (Izanhour, 1982).Furthermore, for the project management to be successful, it is essential that a state of equilibrium exists between objectives of the project and the limited personnel and financial resources attached to it in the particular organization (Maserang, 2002). Good project management is related to uncertainty management practices, deciding on what is to be done or what could be done for a project to be successful. This relates to planning and coordination of various activities and determining change control procedures to manage uncertainties. The uncertainties are normally associated with procedures of estimation and various stages of the project life cycle (Atkinson et al, 2006). Furthermore, uncertainties are also associated with lack of clarity and vagueness due to lack of data and structure, inappropriate assumptions under which project is undertaken and ignorance about the efforts required to complete the project (Atkinson, 2006). Project planning and management leads to appropriate risk calculations, reduced costs, effective teams as well as improved planning. In other words, through project management, it becomes easier to understand project risks allowing sufficient time to manage them. The concerned study also mentions that uncertainties can be considered as risks which could be possible threats to achieve project objectives. Therefore, project management becomes essential to avoid ambiguity and understand mechanisms of risk management. Techniques in Project ManagementVarious criteria need to be considered to recognize when project management techniques are essential to be executed. Project management techniques are taken into consideration when the prevailing risks and uncertainties of the project are high. They make management of projects much easier and effective. The techniques are basically required to list the steps in a project so as to achieve the final goals. The project management typically constitutes of four distinct phases: initiation, planning, execution and closure of the project. There are various techniques related to each phase of the project management. These include the following (Maserang, 2002): (a) Project Initiation: The techniques would involve forming the project initiation team, forming customer relationship. Developing a project initiation plan as well as developing management procedures. (b) Project Planning: This would involve a detailed description of project scope and feasibility, division of projects into tasks, estimation of resources and creating a resource
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