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Applied Bioscience Assessment and Describe the clinical features of amphetamine intoxication and how amphetamines act on the CNS.

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Andy is a 20 year old male who has recently presented to the emergency department experiencing distressing auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusions after taking amphetamines. Andy’s previous psychiatric history reveals that Andy began taking amphetamines when he was 15 years old. When taking amphetamines he experienced auditory hallucinations, delusions and paranoid ideas along with long periods of wakefulness. These symptoms appeared to be related to the physiological effect of the amphetamine use, as when the effects of the amphetamine wore off then so did the psychotic symptoms...

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Andy is a 20 year old male who has recently presented to the emergency department experiencing distressing auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusions after taking amphetamines. Andy’s previous psychiatric history reveals that Andy began taking amphetamines when he was 15 years old. When taking amphetamines he experienced auditory hallucinations, delusions and paranoid ideas along with long periods of wakefulness. These symptoms appeared to be related to the physiological effect of the amphetamine use, as when the effects of the amphetamine wore off then so did the psychotic symptoms. However when Andy was 17 years old he began using amphetamines on a daily basis resulting in an increase in auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusions. He was admitted to a mental health facility for the first time and a DSM IV diagnosis of ‘Amphetamine induced psychotic disorder - 292.12’ was made. By the age of 18 Andy had stopped taking amphetamines but continued to experience prominent paranoid delusions and auditory hallucinations. Following several admissions to hospital with increasing psychotic symptoms the DSM IV diagnosis of Paranoid schizophrenia – 295.30 was made. Answer the following questions (max 1500 words)Please short answer format to demonstrate understanding (do not use essay format). Your answers should be appropriately referenced using APA referencing guide available from Curtin Library. 1. Describe the clinical features of amphetamine intoxication and how amphetamines act on the CNS. Ensure that you identify the neurotransmitters and the structures of the brain that are involved in your answer. (10 marks) 2. Identify neurotransmitters associated with schizophrenia and briefly discuss how the function of each neurotransmitter identified is altered in this disorder (5 marks) 3. Discuss why Andy’s diagnosis changed from a DSM IV diagnosis of ‘Amphetamine induced psychotic disorder - 292.12’ to a diagnosis of ‘Paranoid Schizophrenia – 295.30’. (5 marks) 4. Describe how auditory hallucinations manifest and describe the areas of the brain that are thought to be involved in auditory hallucinations. (5 marks) Academic Format including referencing (5 marks)

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Amphetamine is a drug which acts as Stimulant and appetite suppressant. It majorly acts on the central nervous system and increases certain type of chemicals called neurotransmitters in the body. This is normally used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. Excess intake of amphetamines leads to toxic effects on the body specifically on central nervous system during this drug alters the chemistry of brain. Hence in some regions of world it is considered as abuse. Intoxication of amphetamines shows different types of characteristic symptoms like change in mental status.

Symptoms that can be observed on central nervous system are:

  • Change of mental status
  • Disorientation
  • Head ache
  • Dyskinesia
  • Formication, a type of hallucinated sensation
  • Stroke symptoms.

Amphetamine intoxication can also show some other symptoms on other human body systems. They are chest pain, palpitations, dry mouth, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, micturition difficulties, rashes, needle marks and Mydriasis of eye.  Many of the people experiencing euphoria feeling while taking the amphetamines, fast breathing and long loss of hunger also indicates the amphetamines addiction.

Amphetamines clinical effects can be observed significantly and commonly in ED. These amphetamines resemble the structures of some neurotransmitters like catecholaminergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic agonists (Håkan Karlsson et.al, 2012). The relative activities that amphetamines have to stimulate the receptors of biogenic amines like dopamine, serotonine, epinephrine are dependent on the chemical substituents present on the amphetamine molecules. Thus, the clinical presentation also depends on the amphetamine type used. If we take methamphetamine as example it is lack of peripheral stimulant activity of the amphetamine but still can give hallucination and euphoric effects but very less duration as cocaine. But, Normal amphetamine can show the time duration of minimum 10 to 12 hours. Different routes of administrations are being used for the amphetamine intake like oral, inhalation or intravenous. Where, oral route takes some more time like 1 hour to show its action but inhalation and intravenous shows immediate effects

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