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Urbanisation case study

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Introduction:

From the year 2001 at about 6 million of people from the Pakistan as well as Iran are immigrating towards the city of Kabul which is in Afghanistan is residing within the property currently and is not been registered formally (French, Turkstra and Farid, 2016).

They fall out of the urban areas which are planned formally. The conflict which is enduring and the natural disasters that is taking place very frequently in the segments of the world that is being developing has encouraged as well as forced towards the migration in the direction of the urban centres.

This has been performed at the rates which has accelerated as well as exacerbate the process of the urbanisation. This is the case study regarding the displacement of the urbanisation along a specific focus over the few factors as well as the effects of the growth.

Kabul’s case study:

Since the year 2001, the population of the city Kabul is increasing because of which it is declared as the city which is expanding in a rapid way within the last eight years. The rapid growth is not being confined towards the Kabul.

It is being indicated by the estimation that approximately 60% of the entire population of Kabul has experienced a growth within the period of 2002 till 2009 in the cities (Charles, Setchell and Caroline, 2018).

Reasons behind the growth:

The war has perpetuated uncertainty which seemingly does not have end. The ravages which is on the process for over 30 years regarding the conflict which is being virtually uninterrupted over the capacity of the government, the infrastructure as well as the local economies as well as the effects which is experienced because of the climate change.

The natural disasters are also reason behind the growth which has effects of eroding entirely as well as the coping mechanisms has been eliminated within the rural areas, even forcing, prompting as well as the movement of the large scale towards the Kabul as well as the further cities (Strand, 2017).

Consequently, significant group of the squatter has been shifted towards the Afghanistan from Iran as well as from the Pakistan in the recent times because of the push factors like the challenges of the economy as well as the repatriation which is being forced. Many of the Afghans have fled in Kabul from the other cities because of the survival.

Immigration to Kabul:

The prioritization deficiency regarding the urban planning, the budget deficiency within the urban areas as well as the urban management as well as the inefficiency of the Afghanistan government is the main reason behind the development of the informal areas within the city of Kabul.

The immigrant has arrived from the various cities for the availing of the job opportunities as well as gaining better education and they are not to be found waiting for the government of Kabul to build those houses as the residences (Worldbank.com, 2018).

Strategies that are applied by the squatter settlers after the arrival within the city:

Humanitarian interventions for addressing the growth as well as the development:

The organisations which are humanitarian has observed often the major cities as the incubators regarding the chronic poverty as well as the areas of opportunity regarding the economic migrants. This is rarely regarded as the origins of the protracted displacement as well as acute crises excluding the event of the huge natural disaster (Kumar and Fernández, 2016).

Within the city Kabul, the distressed are there to find the shelter within the regions of the general population, in the segments because of the low level of the development of the economy, the social networks as well as the networks which are familiar that has been relating the resident as well as the new comer, the restricted engagement of the humanitarian within the Kabul for the delivery of the alternatives as well as the restricted interest within the displacement of the monitoring.

This is the section which is responsible for the differentiation among the humanitarianism as well as the growth within Kabul along with the emphasis over the collaborative efforts among the OFDA or the USAID, the Kabul Municipality as well as the NGO for the generation as well as for the sustainment of the conditions that has become necessary for the undertaking of the major activities that are to be developmental (Clos, 2016).

As the migrants and the squatters are not so educated so they agree to perform any types of the jobs whichever suits them in the informal way. Sometimes the legal status of the people does not permit them to become a participant within the society.

Again, the foreign-aid industry as well as the commercial opportunities within the country, where there is a requirement of rebuilding everything after the conflict decade has offered the squatters as well as the migrants for taking jobs which are of high-skilled as well as for introducing a new business which is being run with the funds that is being provided by the international communities.

The KASS that is the Kabul Area Shelter and Settlement project:

The USAID as well as the OFDA has worked closely with the governmental ministries of the Afghanistan as well as the NGO and together has initiated the KASS that is the Kabul Area Shelter and Settlement Project in the year 2006 for the expansion of the construction of the shelter which is seismic-resistance, the existing structures are being upgraded as well as the basic services is being improved (Worldbank.com, 2018).

The requirements of the humanitarians are being fulfilled by the KASS within both the recipients of the direct shelter as well as the further members of the community, those are being benefitted from the service upgrades within the areas of the project. The upgrades are comprised of the improvement of the sanitation, the availability of the safe drinking water is also being improved as well as the hazards of the environment are being reduced by the process of the proper drainage and the disposal is refused.

The focus of the KASS is over the construction of the additional structures which is one-storey for the alleviation of the overcrowd and the associated life risks as well as the health are being reduced. This is the project which is being utilising the local materials as well as the local labours, the income is being increased with the settlement as well as the activity of the local economy.

The economic activity which is being driven by the shelter also assists in the maintaining of the social cohesiveness characteristic of the numerous informal settlements along the workers as well as the engagement of the businesses is being performed within the community.

The humanitarian requirements are not the only thing which is met by the KASS for a short time but has also been serving towards the wider developmental initiatives with the expansion as well as the enhancement of the delivery of the service, along the view for the integration of the informal settlements eventually within the broader scene of the urban (French, Turkstra and Farid, 2016).

In the first phase of the KASS, from the year 2006 to the year 2007, has assisted more than 26,000 people with the addressing of the humanitarian requirements regarding the shelter, water which is safe for drinking as well as sanitation facilities (Worldbank.com 2018).

Accession towards the services are also been improved for thousands of further susceptible individuals. The approaches and resources employed beneath KASS shape physical as well as economic flexibility, further dropping natural disaster as well as the risks which are man-made.

USAID as well as the OFDA has expected the second phase of KASS, programmed for accomplishment in early of the year 2010, to assistance an added 82,000 individuals in same way (French, Turkstra and Farid, 2016).

There is the requirement of strong institutions for the expansion of the service delivery as well as regarding the improvement of shelter within the settlements that is informal. Planning is performed in such a way regarding the future expansion in such a manner which has also accounted for the needs of the humanitarian regarding the arrivals of the newly displaced. The USAID as well as the OFDA has done the implementation of a building project for two-year capacity within the municipality of the Kabul in the year 2008.

Advisors effort to instruct staff regarding the requirements which is being related with the conflict within displaced persons as well as the returnees. Humanitarian as well as the further concerns regarding the vulnerability are being communicated towards the municipality via the community councils that is being developed beneath the KASS. This is the project which bridges the hole among the civil society as well as the municipal government (Smas, 2018).

There is a gap which often hampers the understanding regarding the vulnerable groups as well as the appropriate methods for providing protection to those groups which is deriving from the urban disasters.

Conclusion:

Numerous factors have subsidized towards the growth of informal settlements who are better known as the squatters in Kabul but, in entirely, insecurity as well as the political modifications are to be considered as the prime factor.

Then is the second factor which is regarding the wish of attaining a better life, a better job as well as education. The view of the government over the informal settlements is to be varied as well as considerable.

With the design of the KASS project as well as the capacity-building exertions has promoted the collaboration; provided the successes till date as well as the significant work is being required to completed, USAID as well as the OFDA has the plan for the maintenance of a consistent sustenance towards both.

Reference:

  1. Charles, A., Setchell, N. and Caroline, N. L. (2018) Kabul, Afghanistan: a case study in responding to urban displacement - ODI HPN. Available at: https://odihpn.org/magazine/kabul-afghanistan-a-case-study-in-responding-to-urban-displacement/ (Accessed: 17 January 2019).
  2. Clos, J. (2016) ‘A New Urban Agenda for the 21st century: The role of urbanisation in sustainable development’. Available at: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/urban-rural-and-regional-development/oecd-regional-outlook-2016/a-new-urban-agenda-for-the-21st-century-the-role-of-urbanisation-in-sustainable-development_9789264260245-9-en?crawler=true (Accessed: 17 January 2019).
  3. French, M., Turkstra, J. and Farid, M. (2016a) ‘Vacant Land Plots in Afghan Cities: A Problem and an Opportunity’, Urbanisation. doi: 10.1177/2455747116671825.
  4. French, M., Turkstra, J. and Farid, M. (2016b) ‘Vacant Land Plots in Afghan Cities: A Problem and an Opportunity’, Urbanisation, 1(2), pp. 79–94. doi: 10.1177/2455747116671825.
  5. Kumar, S. and Fernández, M. (2016) ‘The urbanisation-construction-migration nexus (UCMnSA) in 5 cities in South Asia’. Available at: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/65861 (Accessed: 17 January 2019).
  6. Leveraging Urbanization in Afghanistan (2018). Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/afghanistan/publication/leveraging-urbanization-afghanistan (Accessed: 17 January 2019).
  7. Smas, L. (2018) ‘Urbanisation-Nordic geographies of urbanisation’. Available at: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/urban-rural-and-regional-development/state-of-the-nordic-region-2018_4051794a-en (Accessed: 17 January 2019).
  8. Strand, A. (2017) ‘Afghanistan: Challenges and perspectives until 2020’. Available at: https://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/2475319 (Accessed: 17 January 2019).

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