It is the establishing up, preserving, and extending territory by people from another region. It is the slavery of a people by another. Colonialism is when an outside force invades a country, overthrows its government, and forces its norms and values on the colony's inhabitants. European nations explored, conquered, inhabited, and economically exploited significant world sections throughout colonialism. The idea of colonization is to make people outsiders in their land. Governments are deposed, and land arrangements are altered.
Colonialism introduces a new way of life. Different cultures are compelled to interact and coexist. This forced coexistence of peoples from diverse origins with other ideas and ideologies has brought about numerous beneficial and detrimental changes, particularly in the colonies. Changing circumstances in Nigeria is an excellent illustration. Britain colonized Nigeria in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, significantly shaping the country.
Top advantages of Colonialism:
Colonization helped spread faith, particularly Christianity. The European missionaries introduced Christianity to their colonies and taught it correctly. The colonial overlords compelled the people to learn new skills while learning religion. The people improved as they were freed from the illiteracy that had kept them in the dark for so long.
The arrival of Christianity transformed the colonies. In Southern Nigeria, for example, Christianity helped eliminate twin killings by preaching equality and promoting education for all.
Modern medical and healthcare services, railroad construction and other transportation upgrades, modern education, etc., have all helped the colonies evolve into what they are today. These advancements have enhanced colony status internationally, and education has improved chances for competition in literature, mathematics, art, and science. We have Whole Soyinka, Chinua Achebe, Ngugi was Thiongo in Africa, and others.
Natural resource discovery was made possible by new technologies introduced to the colonies by their colonial masters. New technologies made resource exploration more accessible and more efficient. This led to colony establishment and expansion. Even if they were low-paying jobs, people had occupations that added to their experience as they gained knowledge and new abilities. The colonial overlords acquired an inexpensive workforce.
Colonialism expanded land for their colonies. Nigeria did not exist before colonization. Only towns and villages, more or less isolated from each other, survived. It increased the land for all ethnic groups, cities, and towns. Any ethnic group may now relocate to any section of the country and call it home. The colonial overlords named the region surrounding the Niger River Nigeria.
Most multilingual and multicultural nations benefit from the colonial rulers' language adoption. Nigeria, for example, has over 500 languages. Since no language is better than another, making one of the local languages the lingua franca would be impossible. English as a national language has made life simpler for Nigerians.
Drawbacks of Colonialism:
Not conversant with the colonial overlords' new and foreign forms of administration. These forms of governance regarded and valued the colonial systems of government less. The colonists' methods of management were entirely foreign to the Indians. The new governments taxed the locals and enforced unusual and harsh regulations.
Colonization contributed significantly to the erosion and destruction of cultural norms and values. First, the original languages of the colonies were degraded to the colonial rulers' languages. People's attire altered. Colonial natives began dressing and speaking like their colonial rulers, believing their colonial masters were superior human beings. Natives of the colonies lost components of their culture and were treated as second-class citizens. Due to the changes imposed on native life, the locals began to lose respect for their customs. These areas were utilized to establish churches, schools, residences, jails, and other colonial projects. This reduced the locals' farming land.
Natives were dispersed by colonization, causing poverty and death. Some indigenous who could not bear the pain had to depart their homeland to pursue a better life. Others who stayed were penniless. The colonialists controlled everything in the colonies. They enslaved locals by taking their land and making them reliant on their masters. As a result, many Indians were in desperate need of food. Colonialism killed many Indians. The severe living circumstances caused many Indians to abandon their homes and die. Others perished as a result of the colonial overlords' misery and poverty. The Indians became enslaved people in their land.
The colonial overlords introduced illnesses unknown to the colonists. Some of the diseases they brought were contagious, and some Indians got sick. When colonial rulers forced or consented to access local women, they departed with several sexually transmitted illnesses that they disseminated. The indigenous also infected the colonial rulers with malaria, typhoid, chickenpox, and smallpox. During colonial times, sickness was a concern.
Colonialism rendered most colonies economically dependent on their colonial overlords even after independence. The colonial overlords accessed and exploited the colonies' natural and people resources, leaving them undeveloped or developing. Many countries turn to their former colonial overlords for financial help. For example, there are abundant mineral resources in Nigeria, and oil is sold to foreign nations for refinement and then sold to Nigerians for consumption. Nigeria is still heavily reliant on Britain, and many items are imported from Britain and other countries. This economic reliance is called neo-colonialism.
Colonialism continues to have repercussions on both colonized and colonizer countries. Today, cultures are blended nearly everywhere, and people can tolerate and appreciate others' customs and beliefs. It is prejudiced to judge whether colonization has been good or not. Depending on one's opinion, colonialism has both positive and harmful impacts.
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