The presence or absence of A, B, and H antigens in bodily fluids and secretions such as saliva, sweat, tears, semen, serum, mucus present in the digestive or respiratory cavities, etc. Secretors secrete blood group antigens in their bodily fluids while non-secretors do not.
However, the secret or status of a person is determined by the interaction of a different gene (called a secreting gene) with these blood type genes. A secretor is a person who has the secreting gene in their DNA. (Se) for Secretors and (se) for Non-secretors, independent of blood types A, B, AB, or O. ABH secretors are persons who secrete antigens in their bodily fluids. Those with the O blood group release antigen H in the juices, whereas those with the A blood group produce A and H antigens.
Secretors secrete blood-type antigens into body fluids such as saliva, semen, tears, and mucus in the digestive and respiratory systems. They also deposit blood-type antigens in bodily fluids and secrete antigens based on blood type. The A-H antigen is secreted by A, while the AB antigen is secreted by B.
Distinguishing traits of secretors from non-secretors:
ABH secretor connects intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity with serum alkaline phosphatase. Non-secretors have low alkaline phosphatase levels, which helps break down fat and absorb calcium.
The ABH blood types affect the bacterial population around the gut mucin glycoproteins. Bacteria create enzymes that can break down A, B, and H blood antigen end sugars, which they use as food.
The secretor and ABO genetics interact to impact up to 60% of vWf concentration fluctuation in plasma. Homocysteine may induce thrombotic and cardiovascular illness. Their blood is thin, and they have low levels of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWf).
Lewis and Factors Effect Immunoglobulin Variations
ABH non-secretors have low IgG levels. The secretor gene regulates the secretion of many blood group components and influences leucocyte phagocytosis, giving non-secretors an advantage. Non-secretor leucocytes have a more robust ingestion capability than secretor leucocytes, and Phagocytic activity is higher in O and B non-secretors.
Genetics and biochemistry
Specific allomorphic genes impact the production of blood type antigens in bodily fluids and other secretions—two alleles (Se) and (se). The dominant gene Se is found in secretory cells that secrete antigens into bodily fluids, and SE is a recessive allele seen in non-secretors. In contrast, sese is a recessive non-secretor phenotype.
Lewis Phenotype and ABH Secretor Status
The Lewis type also helps in determining the ABH secretor. Lewis antigens are genetically regulated. The Lewis (Le) gene produces Lewis antigens, transported in the plasma by various substances and incorporated into the Red blood cells.
The presence of the Lewis gene might be interpreted as Lewisa positive or Lewisb negative, and no one could be positive for both. A person with the Lewis gene and the secretor gene is categorized as Lewisa negative and Lewis positive, whereas the reverse is true. Lewis negative and Lewis negative individuals lack the Lewis gene independent of the secretor gene.
Agglutination Inhibition and Lewis Typing can identify antigens in bodily fluids.
The Agglutination Inhibition test has two parts:
Lewis antigens are transported by plasma and adsorb on red blood cells by people with the Lewis gene. Lewis antigens are not just found on RBCs. The gene produces Lewisa at first, and Lewis interacts with the H gene, adding sugar to Lewisa and converting it to Lewis.
Secretor status can be evaluated by mixing Lewisa and Lewis antibodies with saliva and seeing agglutination macroscopically.
Disease Secretors and Non-secretors Susceptibility
Non-secretors are more prone to digestive problems caused by oral bacteria. Ulcers, celiac disease, stomach cancer, anemia, etc. It may cause dysplasia or an increase in the number of intestinal cavities.
Non-secretors are more prone to oral cancer, esophageal dysplasia, etc. The secretors have more cavities.
These individuals are at greater risk of acquiring insulin-dependent diabetes or diabetic complications. Retinopathy is rare in secretors with juvenile diabetes.
Lewis negative males are prone to syndrome X and thrombosis. They have high BMI, SBP, and triglycerides but low serum and plasma glucose-insulin. This only applies to males and not to women.
Secretors are more protected from hazardous environmental assaults on our lungs than non-secretors. They are overrepresented in influenza A and B cases, rhinoviruses, RSV, and echoviruses.
ABH non-secretors are at increased risk of myocardial infarction, whereas Lewis negatives are at increased risk of chronic and ischemic heart disease (IHD).
Atherosclerosis, arthropathy, arthritis, and Grave's disease are more common in non-secretors. ABH non-secretors with Graves’ disease generate large quantities of anti-tubulin antibodies and lack water-soluble glycoproteins in saliva compared to secretors.
ABO antigens are detected on secretor sperm, derived from seminal secretions. ABO mismatch between the wife and husband may impair a person's fertility. This topic is still being researched.
The secretors and group O persons are resistant to rheumatic fever, whereas non-secretors have higher instances. The presence or absence of secretors may potentially influence the development of streptococcal pharyngitis.
Non-secretors who do not release water-soluble antigens in saliva are susceptible to meningococcal illness. The secretor's immune system provides some protection.
Non-secretors are candida species barriers and hence often infected. Yeast adherence to the host tissues is inhibited by glycol compounds released by secretors in the bodily fluids.
The CA19-9 tumor marker is most significant in persons with homozygous active (Le/Le) and inactive (SE/SE) Le alleles. Regardless of the Se genotype, Lewis negatives have harmful CA19-9 levels, and DU PAN-2 mean value is more significant in Lewis hostile persons than Le positive individuals. In conclusion, CA 19-9 is not a promising tumor marker for Le-negative patients, whereas DU-PAN-9 is.
Non-secretors are more prone to repeated UTIs and renal scarring than secretors, and the negative Lewis subgroup is more susceptible. Research on recurrent urinary tract infections found that 29% of non-secretor women and 26% of Lewis (a-b-) women had UTIs.
It finds a statistical link between a person's blood-group secretor phenotype and their susceptibility to illnesses. Knowing your secretor status helps us employ nutritional supplements more efficiently. It also makes us aware of our susceptibility to diseases, conditions, metabolic dysfunction, blood coagulation, tumor markers, and breast milk constituents so we may prepare for them in the future.
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