Throughout their long and eventful history, the ancient Egyptians have exchanged ideas and goods with many other nations. Whether it was political, economic, or as an adversary, all of those cultures gave a point of contact and a relationship. Egypt had been in contact with one specific civilization, Nubia (later known as the Kushites with the formation of the Kingdom of Kush), as early as the first century B.C.
To the northeast of Africa lies a territory known as "Nubia," which has been given the name "Nubia" for convenience. Depending on the direction of the Nile's flow, it may be divided into two parts: Lower Nubia to the north and Upper Nubia to the south.  The word "Kush” was the most popular one for the region of upper Nubia.
In ancient times, Kush was situated in the region of Nubia near the third cataract. As was first said, Egypt and Nubia had a relationship based mostly on commerce but even touching on military matters on occasion. The dynamics of their connection, however, got increasingly nuanced with time. The political and economic circumstances of the period influenced the direction it took.
The Nubians were variously viewed by the Egyptians as a colony to conquer, a commercial partner, an opponent, a military asset, a conqueror, and a colony to trade with. The first interaction or connection was simpler than the last phase. As a result, the Nubians needed to rely on their northern neighbour for quite some time. In the early twentieth century, however, things began to shift.
For approximately 500 years, Egypt ruled over Nubia. But when the Egyptian monarchy collapsed after Ramses II, Egypt gradually lost power in the twentieth century. For Egypt, the loss of authority of Nubia and its gold reserves would be catastrophic, and it would pave the way for Libya to seize power. But it would offer Nubia an opportunity to stand up for themselves and seize power.
In the years between 750 and 730 BC, the relationship between Egypt and Nubia shifted dramatically as the Kingdom of Kush and the Nubian ruler, Piankhy (also known as Piye), advanced northward to take Egypt from Libyan authority and build their capital at Thebes. During his roughly 31-year reign, King Piankhy of Dynasty XXV oversaw Nubia (747-716 BC).
The 'Victory Stela of Piy,' a massive granite stela discovered in 1862 in Napata's Gebel Barkal within the Temple of Amun, provides supporting archaeological evidence for this theory.  The stela is 1.80 metres in length and 1.84 metres in width. There are hieroglyphic inscriptions on all four sides of it. In total, there are 159 lines.  The Museum of Cairo is now home to it.
Amun is seated on the left side of the throne, with Mut behind him and Piankhy in front of him, as seen on the top relief. The book tells the story of how Piye came to rule all of Egypt.  It is factually similar to the New Kingdom Annals of Thutmosis III, but considerably more vividly written. A "forceful, cunning, and benevolent" Nubian monarch is depicted in this work. 
“Hear what I did, exceeding the ancestors,
I the King, image of god,
Living likeness of Atum!
Who left the womb marked as ruler,
Feared by those greater than he!
His father knew, he mother perceived:
He would be ruler from the egg,
The Good God, beloved of gods,
The son of Re, who acts with his arms,
Although Piye always intended to dominate Egypt, he valued peace over battle, unlike his eventual foe the Assyrians. His profound religiosity and devotion to Amun are emphasised. Scholars confirm that the cultural and geographic parallels between Egypt and Nubia contributed to the prince's warm reception in Egypt. Rather than depicting themselves wearing the Egyptian crown with a single snake uraeus, the Nubians instead depicted themselves wearing a double crown with two cobras.
The brief period of Nubian dominance over Egypt lasted less than a century. The Assyrians launched a devastating onslaught, driving the Greeks south and forcing them to abandon Thebes in favour of Meroe as their new city. After the reign of the Nubian pharaohs, Egypt was ruled by a powerful dynasty with roots in Sais (the XXVI dynasty). Egypt was transformed into a unified, rich nation throughout this time period. 
Peaceful ties with Nubia at the period gave way to an assault by Psamtik II, who declared victory in 592 BC. In spite of this, he was unable to seize power. Although the reasons for the attack are unknown, they are documented on the so-called "Victory Stela of King Psamtik II," which has led many to conclude that it was an act of retribution by the Nubians against the Egyptians when they were in power.
The Pnubs hill country has been reached by the troops your majesty deployed to Nubia. A battlefield and horses are both absent from this land. There was a massive uprising among the Nubian people of all the hill countries as they turned on him. The rebels suffered greatly as a result of his strike. It's clear that His Majesty has put in some serious fighting time. Nubia's ties to Egypt were tense during the reign of the Saite dynasty but strengthened during the Ptolemaic era thanks to the Meroitic Kingdom.
Tensions between the two countries flared up as they inevitably would. The upper kingdom of Egypt had a single invasion by the Meroites. In spite of this, it appeared that commerce between Egypt and Nubia had risen significantly. With the boundary still located at Maharraqa in the centre of Lower Nubia,  the riches and stimulus from this commerce helped launch a cultural renaissance in the Meroitic heartland.
 Dakka and Philae are two temples that represent the two cultures working together. The two kingdoms remained friendly for quite some time, all the way up until an assault by the Axumite Kingdom around the year 350 AD entirely destroyed the Meroe Kingdom. Following this point, Nubia officially converted to Christianity.
The history of communication between Nubia and Egypt is complicated. Both parties involved in their interactions and interactions between them tended to alternate between friendly and hostile attitudes.
Despite the complexities of their connection, Egypt and Nubia both advanced politically, economically, and culturally in response to whoever was in power at the time. It is well known that the region of Nubia had a significant, albeit fleeting, impact on Egypt's development. The Egyptians wrote and inscribed most of what is known about them. However, much more to be uncovered in Nubia as excavations continue.
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Harkless, Necia Desiree. Nubian Pharaohs and Meroitic Kings: The Kingdom of Kush. Bloomington: Author House, 2006
Lacovara, Majorie Fisher and Peter. Ancient Nubia: African Kingdom on the Nile. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2012.
Lichtheim, Miriam. Ancient Egyptian Literature: The Late Period. Vol. 3. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980.
Redford, Donald B. From Slave to Pharaoh: The Black Experience of Ancient Egypt. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.
Shubert, Steven Blake. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient. Edited by Kathryn A. Bard. London: Routledge, 2005.
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Trigger, Bruce G. “New Light on the History of Lower Nubia.” Anthropologica (Canadian Anthropology Society) 10, no. 1 (1968): 81-106. Accessed 13 November 2014. url http://www.jstor.org/stable/25604760.
 Majorie Fisher and Peter Lacovara, Ancient Nubia: African Kingdoms on the Nile, (Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press) 5.
 Donald B. Redford, From Slave to Pharaoh: The Black Experience of Ancient Egypt, (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press) 101.
 Ibid, 101.
 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings, v.3, (Los Angeles: University of California Press) 66.
 Ibid, 66.
 Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings, v.3, (Los Angeles: University of California Press) 68.
 Ibid, 66.
 Ibid, 85.
 Bruce G. Trigger, “New Light on the History of Lower Nubia”, Anthropologica (1968): 95, access 15 November 2014, url: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25604760.
 Ibid, 95.
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