In order to regulate the stresses that come from external loads below the neutral axis of the beam tension and are higher than what is permitted for plain concrete, pressurising concrete uses a specific type of pre-compression application. Pre-compression that causes the compressive stress below the neutral axis can be applied axially or eccentrically. There is no compression or tension as a result. The fundamental idea behind the creation of pressurised concrete is the introduction of internal stresses with the proper distribution and magnitude to balance out the stress brought on by external loads to the desired level (Jiang, 2015). To generate pressurised concrete, standard concrete must be replaced with higher tensile and compressive strengths (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2012, p. 90). Based on the features and qualities of design and construction, pressurised concrete structures may be divided into several categories. Precast concrete structures have certain architectural advantages but have some unique construction challenges (Libby 2012, pp 45). This research also investigates the behaviour of these pressurised concrete structures under dynamic loads and specific environmental conditions, such as earthquakes.
The following are the research questions that have been developed for this study on "Analysis and Design of a Pressurised Concrete Structure":
As a result, the study conducts an inquiry to thoroughly examine the traits, characteristics, principles, and techniques utilized for pressurising concretes (Priestley 1985, pp 12). To put it more precisely, the research questions set here assist the researcher in thoroughly investigating the key issues that need to be considered while constructing various pressurised concrete structures.
This study's primary goal is to define the essential characteristics of pressurised concrete and the fundamental principles and procedures used for pressurising based on concrete's structural behaviour.
The main goal of this study's research hypothesis is to describe the fundamental properties of pressurised concrete and the typical procedures and methods for pressurising concrete buildings.
For pressurised concrete members, cement—high-strength ordinary Portland cement that complies with IS269—or concrete is the two main components. According to (), the concrete for pressurising should primarily be air-entrained, made of fine and coarse aggregates, Portland cement, water, and admixtures, and have a high compressive and tensile strength. Pressurised concrete is widely utilized in building and bridge projects because it is a trustworthy and durable construction material.
The features of pressurised concrete storage tank analysis and design are covered in this essay. It also explains a straightforward example for examining circular pressurised tanks. The technique can simulate cylindrical and double curvature tanks under various loading conditions, including thermal load, dead load, gas or fluid pressure, and pressurising. It may be applied to modest microcomputers or programmable calculators (Taherinezhad et al. 2013, pp 158). The researcher has carefully explored the relevance and consequences of various activities, such as wall swelling and shrinking, temperature effect, and priestess creep redistribution on the tank design. The findings of frame analogies and analytical approaches for a cylindrical reservoir that is supported by the ground and an elevated double curvature tank are also thoroughly compared in the study. For this purpose, the researcher has conducted a detailed analysis of cylindrical tanks with axisymmetric loading. The pressurising simulation employs a frame analogy to calculate the stress in the tank walls.
This article analyses and designs pressurised concrete precast road bridges with isotactic spans and double U-shaped cross sections. The researcher solves the combinatorial issue using simulated annealing with the mutation operator from generic algorithms (SAMO). The slab and beam geometry, materials, and active and passive reinforcement variables total 59. (Rana et al., 2013). A parametric analysis shows that geometry, economic, and reinforcement parameters correlate with length. It designs pressurised concrete precast bridges well. The researchers also conduct a cost-sensitivity study to see how rising steel and concrete prices influence overall expenses (Marti et al. 2013, pp 83). The investigation also determined cost-optimized bridge parameters and steel and concrete cost implications. Thus, the study focuses on structural design for cost-effective pressurised concrete precast road bridges.
Mo (2013) noted that pre-tensioned concrete's bond strength and bearing strength increase with concrete grade during design. Creep and shrinkage losses are relatively low. Clement et al. (2013) found that pressurised concrete T beam testing showed that hollow cross-sections interact. Kaewunruen & Remennikov (2013) listed pressurised concrete's main advantages, including long-span constructions that may save weight and be economically designed. McCormac & Brown (2015) found that pressurised elements had greater fatigue strength due to tiny changes, which are beneficial in dynamically loaded constructions. The pressurised concrete design has several drawbacks or construction problems. Construction equipment is expensive at first. Kong & Evans (2013) also believed that pressurised concrete sections were fragile and fire-prone.
Post-tensioning concrete uses ducts. When the concrete is strong enough, wedge or nut-anchored jack bearings strain the high-tensile wires. Menn (2012) proposed that patented pressurising techniques attach tendons. Freyssinet, Gifford-Udall, Magnel-Blaton, and Lee-McCall systems can be used.
Design factors for concrete analysis include pressurising force P, which is positive when compressive, eccentricity e, and concrete member cross-sectional area, and top and bottom fibre second modulus. Zhang, Huang, and Liu (2013) examined non-linear and dynamic responses of reinforced and six pressurised concrete types. Hysteric damping processes significantly affect pressurised concrete member characteristics. Wilby (2013) found the best load combinations for various circumstances. P0 (pressurising force at transfer) should restrict concrete compressive strength while planning.
The essential characteristics of pressurising strands have been determined following simulation experiments conducted by Naaman (1982) in their research investigations. The pressurising tendon has an average diameter of 12.8 mm, a nominal area of 99.3 mm2, a modulus of elasticity of 195 kN/mm2, and a tensile strength of 1860 N/mm2. Sengupta & Menon (2012) said that structural analysis provides the forces resulting from dynamic and dead loads. In their investigation, researchers Marti et al. (2013) estimated the direct stress and bending stress caused by priestess. However, concrete creep, shrinkage, or elastic deformation can contribute to many forms of priestess losses. Similarly, researchers Rana et al. (2013) have ensured that concrete members with high compressive strength and tensile strength ft' = 0.615 fc' (fc'85 MPa) should be employed for pressurised concrete constructions. According to McCormac & Brown (2015), the numerous load activities primarily examined during the analysis and design of pressurised concrete buildings include dead loads and imposed loads, dynamic loads, wind loads, seismic loading, earth loads, accidental loads, snow loads, and so on.
Researchers Kong & Evans (2013) calculated the loss resulting from concrete creep caused by the permanent lead load placed after the priestess, which is therefore overlaid. Losses may also result from concrete shrinkage. In this context, researchers Libby (2012) reported significant failures of pressurised concrete structures in Germany, mainly as a result of a combination of issues with pressurising steel and concrete properties, specifically the use of high alumina cement and concrete admixtures that contain thiocyanates or chlorides, as well as due to subpar building techniques. Additionally, the building designers may have encountered durability problems with pressurised concrete bridges in the UK, the United States, and Europe.
Several concerns have been evaluated by conducting investigations and research on pressurised concrete structures. Studies done in the past indicate that priestess concrete systems can readily develop or change in the future. Additionally, they efficiently support the building, allowing it to expand the structure and add a second story to the current roof with relative ease. Furthermore, Taherinezhad et al. (2013) found that until considerable cracking begins, the behaviour of the reinforced concrete specimens may resemble that of the unreinforced elements. To discuss and evaluate the two-span continuous post-tensioned pressurised concrete, a real-world example has been considered (PC).
The ultimate limit load of pressurised concrete members should be calculated with enough ductility and a reduction of excessive stiffness loss, and it may be determined. It is abundantly evident from the material accessible online that the influence of ingress or moisture substantially impacts the durability behaviour of reinforced or pressurised concrete. Additionally, the service loads may serve as the primary basis for the design of these concrete buildings. In other words, the maximum strength is verified to outweigh the need. Different strength values are used to compute the bending resistance. In this study, the various techniques for designing pressurised members have also been covered. The concept of load balancing has been thoroughly explained by the researcher, as well as the key elements that affect deflection, such as imposed load and self-load the size of the pressurising force, the concrete's modulus of elasticity, and the second moment of area of cross-section, and shrinkages and creeps. The critical geometric design parameters are the depth, thickness, and breadth of the specific structure and the material strength. Variables, including compressive stress, pressurise force, tendon eccentricity, and section modulus, significantly impact how pressurised concrete structures behave.
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