The nature, ambitions, triumphs, and failures of Jamestown, Plymouth, and Massachusetts Bay were distinct. There were many parallels and contrasts. But each colony sought something greater in their primary land. Each colony had a vision of the New World, and they came to a feeling of realism. Each colony faced unique problems as a newcomer to the New World. Success varied among the three territories in the New World.
The English arrived in America at approximately 1600. I'll talk about Jamestown, Plymouth, and Massachusetts Bay. I believe the rules and philosophies of the colonists of this century shaped America.
Jamestown, in 1607, was the first New World settlement. King James, I created this colony. King James despatched merchants and adventurers to the New World to benefit from land and money like the Spaniards in Mexico and Peru. The London Company granted a Virginia plantation charter. One of the wealthiest merchants on the New World ships, Sir Thomas Smith, led the way. On a peninsula near the James River, 104 people landed. These settlers sought to generate money to send home.
Jamestown was on this peninsula. The colonists in this low-lying marsh area were plagued by sickness, unclean water, and Spanish or Native American attacks. The early inhabitants of Jamestown were in grave danger.
Men mostly came to the New World. Men dominated the population. A 6-1 men-to-wo Jamestown required men labourers to work on the enormous plantation. The lack of female settlers created a lack of community. Jamestown's rulers prioritized colony survival over religion.
Captain John Smith's outstanding leadership skills ensured Jamestown's survival. He ordered chaos (Brands, 2009, p. 35). Captain John Smith bartered with Indians, and Pocahontas, an Indian, spared Smith from death. Smith made people labour to eat. Many colonists despised Smith for doing this, but he kept the colony alive during a difficult time.
Smith spent 1609-1611 in England (Brands, 2009, p. 36). The Jamestown settlers were left without a leader. Due to a lack of leadership, the settlers became hungry. To survive, some colonists became cannibals. "Starving Time" (Brands, 2009, p. 36). The surviving colonists asked the Powhatan Indians for aid in growing and harvesting grain and tobacco.
John Rolfe and other English immigrants in the area started cultivating tobacco. He developed a milder variety and marketed it to Europe. Virginia began to prosper as a result. Mild temperature and good soil made tobacco simple to cultivate. Tobacco farms became a hub for slave traffic. To enhance yields, landowners hired indentured labourers from their property. Slavery became a big business. Jamestown made money on one product.
After "starving time," the colony needed regulations to maintain order. The laws outlined the settlers' responsibilities and obligations. The penalties applied did not meet duties and obligations. Officers were to guarantee that everyone attended twice-daily service and punish anyone who disrespected God or challenged authority. One church, one God, one law. Many thought these laws were crucial for survival. These laws did not entice potential Jamestown settlers. The Virginia Company pledged to make the colony more appealing to the rich. The Burgess House was founded in 1619. (Brands, 2009, p. 39). The government made choices for this area. In England, a council might override any judgments made by the House of Burgess. The House gave wealthy planters a voice. King Charles acknowledged the House of Burgess in 1639. (Brands, 2009, p. 39).
The regime was neither democratic nor theocratic. The elected rulers governed for the people and were accountable to God. Men and women joined forces to achieve common goals. The community built a meetinghouse for this. Many communities disagreed on problems, but they depended on civil courts to resolve them. Laws and Liberties (Brands, 2009, p. 46). This clearly stated the colonists' duty to their territory.
Massachusetts Bay outlived Jamestown because of better circumstances. They had the ideal climate, water, and plumbing, which helped reduce illness transmission. They lived long, stress-free lives because they built their societies around God and family.
Like Massachusetts Bay colonists, Pilgrims sailed for the New World seeking religious freedom. Separatists who went to Holland worried their children would turn Dutch. The Pilgrims were Puritans, too. They chose their church leaders. The Virginia Company granted the Pilgrims land, and they got a patent to settle north of the Virginia Colony. A storm swayed the Mayflower, and it brought them to Plymouth.
Their Virginia patent was invalid in this part of New England. The colonists realized they couldn't organize a civil government without a patent. Forty-one men signed the Mayflower Compact (Brands, 2009, p. 42). This text instructed the government to behave themselves in God's will.
William Bradford worked on the Mayflower Compact. He became the region's second governor. Even though sickness and famine took about half of the colonists in the first several months, Bradford pushed the men and women to persevere. Bradford helped reconcile the Indians and the settlement.
Plymouth, like Jamestown, was founded on Indian grounds. Squanto greeted and interacted with the Pilgrims alongside Massasoit. Bradford was the link. They taught the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, and farm. Massasoit saw common ground between Indians and colonists. Squanto was the Pilgrims' Indian translator. Squanto taught the Pilgrims how to cultivate food and survive in the wilderness. The Pilgrims did establish a trading centre to exchange maize for Indian furs.
The settlers fished and harvested timber for profit in England. But the Pilgrims never learned to fish, and the return on exported lumber was minimal. The colony started financially sound. Due to the low return on investment, Plymouth subsequently became part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
As a result of the population and political systems in Jamestown, Massachusetts Bay, and Plymouth, Massachusetts and Plymouth were more devout and concerned with the commonwealth with their strong religious and familial values. These colonies moved in groups of six to 10, forming strong family bonds. Due to the cold and poor soil, they had varied produce. They did small-scale farming, fishing, commerce, and shipbuilding.
Many of the Massachusetts and Plymouth immigrants lived long and happy lives. To survive, Jamestown had rigorous non-religious governance. Jamestown settlers were mostly male and self-cantered. Due to the absence of women, this colony lacked community. This colony's moderate climate and good soil grew tobacco, a significant export commodity. They had to work more in an unhealthy environment. The common problems and faith in God helped the colonies overcome their differences and eventually establish a country.
Source : Jorge Flore ( History Professor )
Designation : PHD Advisior LiveWebTutors