The classical school of criminology is a set of 18th-century philosophers. Members like Cesare Beccaria believed that criminal conduct could be studied and controlled. The classical conception asserted that people are rational entities who want to maximise pleasure and reduce misery. These include the beginnings of classical thinking, Cesare Beccaria's influence on classical philosophy, and classical theory's relevance to crime prevention. A lack of adequate punishment permits crime to continue, and the teaching material will illustrate this. Deterrence can be achieved through clearly specified laws, public penalty, and removal of judicial discretion.
Classical Theory And Crime Prevention
Criminology includes six theoretical advancements. Essay about classical school theory the classical school of criminology includes important principles, forerunners of classical philosophy, and policy consequences. First, I shall define classical theory and outline its roots in one of the classical thought's most popular forerunners, Cesare Beccaria. Finally, I will explore how classical theory relates to crime prevention and deterrence.
For a paper on classical theory and crime prevention, the work of classical theorist Beccaria had to be studied. Beccaria is credited with many 18th century changes (Newman & Marongiu, 1990). Beccaria (1983) stated that the quicker the penalty follows the offence, the better. They claim that classical and neoclassical ideas are more a philosophy of justice than a theory of crime causation.
Cohen and Felson (1979) asserted that lifestyles influence the number and kind of crimes in any culture. Determining whether Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory of crime applied to organisational misbehaviour was studied by Reed and Yeager (1996). Moriarty and Williams (1996) emphasised individual choice and a disdain for social variables such as poverty, family environment, and socialisation. The rational choice theory assumes that everyone is capable of rational decision making, although it is dependent on personality (Tunnell, 1990).
Studies were needed to deal with punishment and how it deters crime. Although one might expect study results to show that the death penalty deters crime, they found little variation in murder rates between states that have abolished it and those that have retained it (Bailey, 1979). Size (2009) analyses how capital punishment challenges legal theory. According to Size, the death sentence is also a "bad economy of power," according to Sitze.
During the late 1700s and early 1800s, the classical theory reigned. Classical theory assumes that people are rational beings who seek to maximise their pleasure and minimise their pain. They may commit crimes for self-interest unless deterred by the threat of swift, certain, and severe punishments (Martinetal, 1990).
According to classical theory, a lack of effective punishments is a cause of crime. For more information about classical theory, visit www.classicaltheory.org (Vold et al., 2002). Classical theorists aimed to criticise and reform the system, but their arguments contained a theory of criminal behaviour.
People's circumstances may drive them to appraise the possible pains of punishment and joys of crime differently. Poor people, for example, maybe more attracted to the pleasures of crime than the pains of punishment (Beccaria, 1983).
Classical theory assumes people are rational and commit crimes to reduce pain and increase pleasure. Others argue that many criminals are not rational and that crime is not in their best interests. They commit crimes due to forces beyond their control, and they often suffer greatly (Vold et al., 2002).
According to classical theory, people commit crimes based on the certainty and appropriateness of their punishments.
18th-century Italian nobleman and economist. Most consider Beccaria the "father" of Criminology. Beccaria's efforts made him the most influential figurehead of Classical Theory. During the 18th century, stern and often draconian punishments were applied for crimes committed, and Beccaria proposed the utility hypothesis. Beccaria studied the reasons for delinquent and criminal behaviour, determining what causes such aberrant behaviour. Beccaria opposed the European Enlightenment doctrines of naturalism and even demonology. Beccaria aimed to spread the Enlightenment philosophies of rationality and humanitarianism (Martin et al., 1990).
Beccaria sought to rationalise criminal punishment. He felt a penalty hierarchy should be based on the action and purpose. The penalty scale would have included repeat offenders and more serious offences. This would change the death penalty. Beccaria's punishment scale would only apply the death sentence based on the gravity of the crime, not the act or actions of committing or participating. Beccaria thought judges had too much discretion in deciding what punishment to impose. Beccaria endorsed precise sanctions for individual crimes. In 1764, he wrote An Essay on Crimes and Punishment to express his views on his day's laws and judicial system. "Laws are the conditions under which autonomous and separated persons collaborated to establish a society," Beccaria wrote in the Essay. (Beccaria)
Deterrence And Prevention
Classical theory is best reflected in deterrence theory. According to deterrence theorists, people are rational and seek to maximise their pleasure and minimise their misery. They commit crimes if they believe it will benefit them. Immediate, definite, and harsh punishment is the greatest approach to deter crime. Like classical theorists, deterrence theorists study the impact of official punishment on crime. Deterrence occurs when "someone refrains from committing a crime due to fear of formal legal punishment" (Paternoster & Bachman, 2001).
Specific and general deterrence are defined in deterrence theory. Specific deterrence refers to the belief that punishing specific persons lessens crime, and punishing someone for a crime should deter them from committing more. Studies on general deterrence examine whether punishment deters general crime. Some argue that punishing those who do not punish may deter crime. Thus, punishment is an efficient strategy to deter crime (Paternoster & Piquero, 1995).
Classical theory, Cesare Beccaria, and deterrence have been discussed throughout the article. The book revealed that people are logical entities that attempt to maximise their joy and minimise their sorrow. The classical scholar Cesare Beccaria determined that establishing logical sanctions for crimes may dissuade such behaviour. The deterrence hypothesis shows that people avoid crimes because of fear of punishment. Thus, deterrence theory best resembles classical theory.
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