In Britain, Industrialization began in the late 17th century and lasted until the early 19th century. It was a time when agriculture gave way to industry and reality gave way to urbanity. Before the Industrial Revolution, most production was done with simple tools and equipment. Due to low salaries, most individuals had to create their clothing and food. Powered equipment, factories, and mass manufacturing began the Industrial Revolution. People moved to cities to work in the industry. It also enhanced banking and transportation. The Industrial Revolution improved most people's standards of living but also harmed the working class.
Urbanization began with the Industrial Revolution. With so many newcomers, the factory owners had to develop swiftly. Back-to-back residences were thus named. Back-to-back homes had one room and shared a rear wall with another house or industry. One room often housed a family, and 15-20 households shared the structure. The dwellings were cramped and without plumbing. Because germs weren't known back then, sickness spread quickly and readily. Cholera, typhoid, and typhus were frequent. Cholera was a hazard due to polluted water.
From 1830 through 1867, Britain was plagued by cholera, with a brief respite. Because sewage may contaminate water, sickness spreads quickly. From 1831-to 1832, cholera killed 7000 Londoners. The illness was not necessarily lethal, but there was a 50% chance of death. In 1848-49, 15000 died. The sickness mainly impacted the poor (working class) and not the wealthy. Poor food and wet dwellings created another widespread disease, tuberculosis, which killed one-third of all deaths in Britain. Poor nutrition made people less resistant. The working class ate just once or twice a day with a slice of bread and a bowl of porridge. Another explanation is lengthy factory hours. They got little sleep and went back to work the next day. Air pollution harms people's lungs. London became a polluted city. In 1873, 700 Londoners perished from corrosion in a week.
The streets were unclean, and people dumped their garbage out. People had to wear long boots to cross the filthy streets. Sanitation was poor, and many toilets were located outside dwellings due to odour—insufficient policing increased crime. More crime meant more congested jails, which meant more executions. The impoverished people didn't live long since illnesses polluted the water and factories polluted the air. Rural Britain had a 45-year life expectancy, whereas London had a 37-year one. Also, in the early 19th century, 25-33 per cent of English children died before 5.
Richard Arkwright was among the first to improve factory working conditions. 1769: Arkwright built a factory in Cromford. From then on, most workers were in factories. Factory life was hard. 12-16 hour days, six days/week. Factory employment pay was likewise relatively low. The whole family (including children) had to labour to survive. People would get up early, have breakfast on the run to the plant, and work until noon. After a 30-minute lunch break, workers have to return to work until 9 p.m. (some until 11 p.m.) tomorrow.
During the Industrial Revolution, child labour was rampant. Children made up 80% of the workforce. It was simple to hire kids. Orphanages had enough of them and could replace them. Some of the wealthier factory owners would feed and house the youngsters in exchange for their labour. The earnings of children were inadequate. It just met their necessities, hardly enough to survive. Children were cheaper than adults since they could crawl beneath machinery and mend them. Working in unsafe situations and long hours left them little time for hobbies. These kids were uneducated.
So they had no choice but to work in factories for the rest of their lives, which continued generation after generation. Initially, no laws protected these youngsters. To solve the issue, plant owners would bribe factory inspectors. By the early 1800s, 107000 kids worked in the textile business. Many laws were enacted to safeguard kids. The first legislation, in 1819, limited the employment time of children to less than 9 to 12 hours. The Ten Hour Bill of 1847 was the most significant British labour regulation. It set a 10-hour restriction for children and women with more excellent pay.
Coal mining was undoubtedly the riskiest employment throughout the Industrial Revolution, yet the roof might collapse. The tunnel between the mine and the earth was small and low. Explosions also happened, killing several. Working in a coal mine for too long might cause significant lung damage. Coal miners had a short life expectancy. The most prevalent accident was a roof collapse. Women and children worked in coal mines alongside men.
The Industrial Revolution introduced new lifestyles and technologies. Railroads, factories, and mass manufacturing would not exist without the Industrial Revolution. The top and middle classes lived better and were wealthier. The middle class could afford more clothing, furnishings, wine at the dinner table, and a more significant residence. The rich became more prosperous as the poor got poorer. The Industrial Revolution certainly hurt the working class.
They had to live in slums and fear infections. They were malnourished, and many died of starvation. Families were split up to work. During this time era, children suffered the most. Because they had no education and were cheap to recruit, they formed the dominant labour force and were regularly mistreated. Even though the Industrial Revolution had positive long-term implications for the working class and labour laws were set up to safeguard employees, living in industrial cities in such poor conditions was difficult.
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