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History of Accounting and Ethical Principles and Ethical Dilemmas


Assignment on history of accounting and ethical principles and ethical dilemmas

Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Q. 1 History of Accounting. 4

Q. 2 (1) Ethical Principles issued by APESB for the Accountants through the mutual ethics codes of CAANZ and CPAA: 5

(2) Identify Ethical Dilemma in this case and ways to resolve it: 6

Conclusion. 8

References. 9


This study is undertaken to explain the history of accounting that is mostly related to the Pacioli known as father of bookkeeping. Accounting history is about old and modern accounting such as double entry system, bookkeeping, financial accounting, management accounting and auditing and chartered accountants etc. all these aspects will be discussed in this study as follows. This study also include the ethical principles and ethical dilemmas for the accountants in auditing and evaluation. An accountant should follow the appropriate codes and the ethical principles to present the fair report of an organization and business. If a report consist dilemma then accountant should use logical methods to resolve these problems and get the error free report of an organization and business.

Q. 1 History of Accounting

The previous enhancement of bookkeeping turn back to antiquated Mesopotamia, and is tightly recognized with opportunities recorded as a counting, writing and cash and previous auditing frameworks by the previous Babylonians & Egyptians. When of the Augustus Emperor, the Roman govt. presented point to point money related information. Chanakya founded an original set like a book of financial management, during the period of the Empire of Mauryan. The book "Arthashasthra" consists some parts of book keeping of accounts for a State Sovereign (Giraudeau, 2017).

It is an arrangement of chronicle and outlining business and money related exchanges. For whatever length of time that human advancements have been participating in exchange or sorted out frameworks of government, techniques for record continuing, bookkeeping, and bookkeeping devices have been being used. Probably the most punctual realized compositions found by archeologists are records of antiquated duty records on dirt tablets from Mesopotamia and Egypt going back as right on time as 3,300-2,000 BCE. Citizen of history conjecture that the crucial explanation behind the improvement of composing frameworks left a requirement to record transactions and business exchanges.

When centered Europe turned toward a money related country in the 13th century, shippers based upon accounting to deal numerous concurrent transactions invested by loan of banks. In 1458 Benedetto Cotrugli developed the twofold passage bookkeeping framework, which altered bookkeeping (Phan, Joshi, and Tran-Nam, 2018). Twofold section bookkeeping is recognized as any framework of accounting that includes a credit as well as debit passage for exchanges. Mathematician of Italy and Franciscan priest Pacioli, who created an arrangement of record keeping that utilized a journal, ledger, and record, composed numerous books on bookkeeping.

Pacioli born in Tuscany in 1445, Pacioli is called nowadays as the bookkeeping and accounting father. He composed Geometria, Summa de Arithmetica, Proportioni et Proportionalita ("The Collected information of Geometry, Airthmetica, Proportionality, and Proportion") which incorporated a twenty seven page treatise of accounting in 1494. The book of Pacioli was the primary distributed utilizing the verifiable Gutenberg press, incorporated treatise was a principal known distributed work on the subject of twofold passage accounting (Kuter, Gurskaya, and Kuznetsov, 2019).

The Chartered Accountant's new profession began in the 19th century in Scotland. Bookkeepers consistently had a place with indifferent relationship from specialists, who currently provided accounting administrations to their clients. Early present bookkeeping had likenesses to the current criminological bookkeeping. Accounting began to progress in a composed job in the 19th century, with local expert in England converging to frame the Chartered Accountants Institute in Wales and England in 1880.

Q. 2 (1) Ethical Principles issued by APESB for the Accountants through the mutual ethics codes of CAANZ and CPAA:


Being direct, legitimate and true in all business and expert connections. Attempt not to be associated with any information that you get consist a physically deceiving or false articulation, or that is misdirecting from exclusion.

Objectivity. Not allowing irreconcilable, inclination situation or the effect of other peoples to supersede your expert decision.

Due care and Proficient capability

A constant promise to your degree of specialist information and capability. Base this on present improvements physically talking, strategies and enactment. Those operations under your position must likewise have the suitable supervision and preparing.


You should not reveal proficient information except if you have explicit position or a rule or expert liability to do alike.

Proficient Behavior

 To accept to pertinent rules and laws. You must likewise evade any action that could adversely affect the notoriety of the job or profession (Berreby, Bourgne, and Ganascia, 2017).

Example: Managing issues of employees performance

A lower individual from employees has quite currently come return to operate in the wake of getting exceptional off to think about her aged mother. For monetary problems she equires to work all the day. The employee has been facing troubles with her mother's house consideration game plans, making her miss many group meetings (that for the most part occur toward the initiate of every day) and to finish task. She is capable in her task yet her nonattendances are keeping weight on her and her overwhelmed partners. You are employee's administrator, and you aware that the progression of task through the practice is going into weight. One of the employee's male partners is initiating to remarks, for example, "a lady's space is into the house", and is down turning her at every opportunity, keeping the employee under more prominent stress (Espinosa-Pike, and Barrainkua, 2016).

Key ethical principles used in this case study:


You should be reasonable for every one of those included and behave in a direct way.


You owe an obligation of classification to the employees or employees included.

Proficient behavior

In what way you should continue so that not to dishonor yourself, your practice or the profession for that you do work?

(2) Identify Ethical Dilemma in this case and ways to resolve it:

Recognize applicable facts:

Think about the company's methods, approaches and rules, better practice and, with legitimate help whenever needed, material rules and guidelines. Is there an employee book or comparative inner publication? Think about whether it is your legal job to manage with this type of employees problems. Does the practice have an department in charge of personnel issues?

Recognize influenced parties:

Key influenced gatherings are you, the lesser individual from employees and her partners. Other influenced individuals from staff might be in the faculty or personnel office.

Who ought to be associated with the resolution:

Think whom you should to incorporate as well as when and why. Can your expert give counsel and guidance? Do you provide proper employee in the work force office, or will you say you are prepared to counsel an external organization for classified and confidential guidance?

Possible actions

Check the pertinent actualities. It is vital, explain staff methodology with the work force distribution. Allow lawful exhortation whenever needed. Examine the problem with the lower individual from employees. Potential arrangements can include proposing an expanding changed way to manage with group groups. Do those consistently need to be on morning? Now and again, work from home may be a possibility for the lower individual from employees. You likewise need to deal the other individual from employees, who should be learned about appropriate direct and how that behavior may add up to harassment and be in involve of the practice's set of accepted rules.

Taking the problems and attempting to identify an answer powers you to present that you are carrying on expertly and project to decide the challenges seen by the lower individual from employees. All from this, you must be trusted to behave reasonably –towards both the lower individual from employees, who is in charge of her mother's consideration, and towards other peoples from staff. Thinking about each single logical trade off, if the last is arrived at that the lower representative can't do the task for that she was hired, you must turn your thoughtfulness regarding her recent work inside the practice (Tormo-Carbó, Seguí-Mas, and Oltra, 2016). It will presumably be out from the hands, or you should to convey the significant actualities to the operations force office or the owners of the training. Security should be kept up consistently. You must archive, in detail, all the point that you consider in arranging your dilemma, into the function that your ethical judgment is investigated in the future.


This study has done by assessing the history of bookkeeping and accounting that has been found many years ago and provide the strength to the various methods such as management accounting, cost analysis, auditing and other. The conclusion is that the accounting has been exist from many years ago and help to support the financial structure of an organization and business (Cameron, and O'Leary, 2015). This assessment has done by focusing on ethical principles and ethical dilemmas (problems) for the accountant with the help of a case study example as explained above in the assignment. Ethical Principles and Ethical dilemmas are the two fundamental concept for the accountants to use in every organization


  • Berreby, F., Bourgne, G., & Ganascia, J. G. (2017, May). A declarative modular framework for representing and applying ethical principles. In Proceedings of the 16th conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems (pp. 96-104). International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.
  • Cameron, R. A., & O'Leary, C. (2015). Improving ethical attitudes or simply teaching ethical codes? The reality of accounting ethics education. Accounting Education24(4), 275-290.
  • Espinosa-Pike, M., & Barrainkua, I. (2016). An exploratory study of the pressures and ethical dilemmas in the audit conflict. Revista de Contabilidad19(1), 10-20.
  • Giraudeau, M. (2017). The farm as an accounting laboratory: an essay on the history of accounting and agriculture. Accounting History Review27(2), 201-215.
  • Kuter, M. I., Gurskaya, M. M., & Kuznetsov, A. V. (2019). Alexander Galagan: Russian titan of the Enlightenment in the history of accounting. Accounting History24(2), 293-316.
  • Phan, D., Joshi, M., & Tran-Nam, B. (2018). The history of accounting standard setting in an emerging transition economy: The case of Vietnam. Accounting History23(3), 379-406.
  • Tormo-Carbó, G., Seguí-Mas, E., & Oltra, V. (2016). Accounting ethics in unfriendly environments: The educational challenge. Journal of business ethics135(1), 161-175.

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