Call Back

24x7 Support Available

To Get the Best Price Chat With Our Experts

chat now

In A Hurry? Get A Callback

whatsapp whatsapp

CRM in Tech Mahindra








Outline. 12

1.2 Introduction. 14

1.2.1 Key customer focus. 16

1.2.2 Customer relationship management organization. 16

1.2.3Technology- based customer relationship management 17

1.2.4 The principle of Pareto. 19

1.3 Background of the Study. 20

1.4 Problem Statement. 22

1.5 Research Objectives. 25

1.6 Research Questions. 25

Scope of the Study. 26

1.7 Significance of the Study. 26

CHAPTER TWO: Critical Literature Review.. 29

2.1. Introduction. 29

2.1.1      Literature Search Strategy. 29

2.1.2      Structure of literature review.. 30

2.2 Customer Relationship Management. 42

2.3Major CRM elements. 45

2.4 Implementing the right Customer Relationship Management solutions. 46

2.5 Types of CRM solutions. 50

2.5.1 Off the shelf solutions. 50

2.5.2 Outsourced solutions. 51

2.5.3 Bespoke software. 51

2.5.4 Managed solutions. 51

2.6 Components of Customer Relationship Management. 52


2.6.1 Technology. 52

2.6.2 People. 53

2.6.3 Business process. 53

2.7 Failures in the implementation of CRM.. 53

2.8 CRM strategy and level of response. 57

2.9 Behaviours and needs related to CRM.. 57

3.0 Benefits of CRM.. 59

3.0.1 Assessment of CRM benefits. 64

3.1 The Management role in Implementing Customer Relationship Manager (CRM) Strategies. 66

3.2 Impact of in Adequacy of CRM on Success of Companies. 70

3.2.1 Effects on customers. 71

3.2.2 Effects on the Management 73

3.3.3 Effects on Marketing. 74

3.4 Customer Relationship Management at Tech Mahindra. 75

3.4.1 Customer Experience Enhancement Engine. 76


3.1 Introduction. 80

3.2 Research design. 80

3.3 Sample Framework. 81

3.3.1 Sample size and technique. 81

3.3.2 Sample procedure. 81

3.4 Data Collection. 81

3.4.1 Sources of Data. 82

3.4.2 Primary and secondary researches. 82

3.5 Data recording. 83

3.6 Target group. 83

3.7 Research analysis. 83

3.7.1 Resources used for the research analysis. 83

3.8 Limitations of the Research Study. 84

3.9 Ethical Considerations. 84




4.1. Introduction. 86

4.2 Socio-demographics. 86

4.3 Causes of CRM inadequacies at Tech Mahindra. 87

4.4 Management role in implementing CRM strategies. 88

4.5 CRM implementation approaches. 89

4.6 Impact of inadequate Customer Relationship Management has caused to the success of Tech Mahindra  89

4.7 Analyzing the importance of CRM. 90

Table 4.7 a: Response on the quality of services and product delivery at Tech Mahindra before they implemented CRM    90

Table 4.7 b: Response on the quality of services and product delivery at Tech Mahindra after they implemented CRM    92

Figure 4.7 b. Graph to show response on the quality of services and product delivery at Tech Mahindra after they implemented CRM.. 92


5.1. Introduction. 95

5.2 Summary of major Findings. 95

5.2.1Causes of CRM inadequacies at Tech Mahindra. 95

5.2.3 CRM implementation approaches. 96

5.2.4 Impact inadequate Customer Relationship Management has caused to the success of Tech Mahindra  96

5.2.5 Analyzing the importance of CRM. 97

5.3 Conclusion. 97

5.4 Recommendations. 98


References. 102





Interview with the Manager. 113

Interview with Customers. 116




Definitions. 129







Table 4.7 a....................................................................................................................68

Table 4.7 b.....................................................................................................................68

Table 4.7 c.....................................................................................................................69

Figure 4.7 a...................................................................................................................69

Figure 4.7b...................................................................................................................70




This research study will deeply look at theeffects of inadequate CRM (customer relationship management) in Tech Mahindra. The study seeks to identify the impact that implementation of CRM has had on this company. The study is to assess both positive and negative impacts. It is from the research that we will make it possible to identify if the implementation of CRM at Tech Mahindra has added value to the company or not.

The specific study objectives are to conduct an analysis on thecauses of CRM inadequacies within the firm, to explore the management role in implementing CRM strategies, to assess the CRM implementation approaches, to investigate the various effects that inadequate CRM has caused to the success of Tech Mahindra and to analyze the importance of CRM for the company.

Chapter one sets the framework of this research. It presents the study background, problem statement,study objectives, research questions, scope of the study, and significance of the study.

Chapter two of these paper reviews literature as an account of the knowledge and ideas that have been established by accredited scholars and experts in the field of study. It is guided by the study objectives identified in the first chapter.

Chapter three presents methodology to be used to select the sample, from which research will be carried out and methods of selection of respondents. It also explains the methods that will be used to collect, process and analyze data. The identified methods to be used for data collection include questionnaires and telephone interviews.The paper also presents anticipated challenges during the actual research study. These include, time and financial constraints as well as difficulty in acquiring information from the respondents.




This research contains five chapters, in which the first chapter is the introduction which includes the research study background, problem statement, research objectives, research questions, and the significance of the study.

The chapter two is critical Literature review which explores on the major Customer Relationship management elements, implementation of the right CRM solutions and the various types of these solutions, the various components that make up CRM, reasons for failure during CRM implementation, CRM strategy and level of response and the impact that inadequate CRM implantation can have on a company’s success. The chapter provides a clear definition of customer relationship management and thus provides a simple understanding of the concept. The last part of the chapter looks at CRM in Tech Mahindra with focus being on the Customer Experience Enhancement Engine as the selected strategy for effectively managing the company’s relationships with its customers.

Chapter three is describes the study methodology which includes the research design, sampling framework, methods of data collection and recording, description of the target group, research analysis methods, limitations of the research study and the ethical considerations during the study. Chapter four is data analysis, presentation, interpretation and discussion of the findings. It presents data in form of tables and graphs. Chapter five includes introduction, summary of major findings, conclusion and recommendations to Tech Mahindra. Chapter six which is the final chapter of this paper includes a personal reflection of myself before and after the study and is on personal development.




1.2 Introduction

            The importance of revolution in information technology and especially the World Wide Web is a chance to build good relationship with the customer that previously has been made possible within the world offline. By merging abilities of direct customer request and to provide a highly interactive, customized experience to the customer, today companies have a huge ability to establish, and maintain relationship with the customer which is long term as compared to before. Huge profitability as a result of repeated purchase rates and minimizing costs as a result of customer acquisition is the ultimate goal. For more than a decade customer relationship management [CRM] has been part of marketing literature. Surprisingly, many more discussions about what exactly makes CRM are still evident(Parvatiyar and Sheth, 2001; Nevin, 2005; Sin et al, 2005).

            The old viewpoint in industry is not the same as the new viewpoint, the old viewpoint was, this is what can be made, who needs to purchase our product but the new viewpoint relates to, what is exactly needed by the customers and what can we do to be able to effectively produce and efficiently deliver the various wants and even needs to all customers.This can be seen as avery important paradigm change as well as a quantum jump in regards to how business activities are figured.

            Parvatiyar and Sheth (2001) say that, a number of the various themes are a representation of a thin perspective of functional marketingand others give a perspective which is paradigmatic andwide in terms of orientation and approach. To view customer relationship management as marketing database is an example of narrow perspective and so is insisting promotional marketing aspects by customer data base leveraging. Electronic marketing  is another example of narrow approach (Blattberg and Deighton ,2001)also after marketing (Vavra, 2002) .Electronic


marketing makes up all efforts of marketing given support by information technology but after marketing effort  aims at bonding of the customers after making  the sale . On a wider level, customer relationship management means partnering (Peppers and Rogers 2003, Vavra 2002). CRM being an important tool and way to add companies’ services and products, an apt CRM has been considered an imperative strategic way to add companies’ products and services hence becoming important for companies in every sector. Companies are moving closer to their customers and looking for new ways in creating value for customers, transforming relationships and finding solutions by partnering through the implementation of CRM (Krasnikov et al., 2009). 

            There are set of conditions that both the organization have to put into consideration when forming  the relationship which includes wants and need of the clients and the organizations itself. Organizations must be profitable for survival and growth and that customers want services which are good, products which are of high quality and acceptable price. Both sets of conditions can be highly influenced by good CRM.

            Clearly customers need the most cost effective products and services that have benefit to them. Most apparently, this makes hat is seen as the level of perception of a high number of suppliers. Benefits in this case refer to role of services and products play for clients.The most important thing to note is that any distinct service or product can bring various benefits to various clients. It is significant observe things and situations from the view of the clients even within this stage. The most important thing to note is that customer clearly wants their various needs met and satisfied, customer’s needs are clearly dissimilar to and much wider than a given service or product as well as the benefits and features which are included .Generally


customer needs extend far much above the proposition of suppliers. The main focus of CRM is to ensure that the desires and needs of the customers are not just met but that they are exceptionally met.

            To come up with a list that is comprehensive and that includes all customer relationship management functions.It is important to point out the major constructs that make up customer relationship management. In this way Sin et al(2005) suggested that CRMmake up the below four constructs; customer relationship management organisation, technology based CRM, key customer focus, knowledge management. Each is described as below;

1.2.1 Key customer focus

            This includes building a customer focus which is strong (Vanderrmerwe, 2004;Sheth et al,2000 and Das, 2004) as well as constantly giving advanced worth to every key client who is selected (Parvatiyar and sheth, 2001) by the giving of  offerings which are customized or personalized (Dyche ,2002).

1.2.2 Customer relationship management organization

            It depicts organising the whole organisation around customer relationship management, which will result to consideration for example like, organisational structure, Human Resources Management and resource commitment (Sin et al 2005).

1.2.3Technology- based customer relationship management

            Technology has a big role in enabling deployment of customer relationship management (Das, 2004). It also allows for companies to achieve bigger customization and much greater and more quality services at a cost that is lower (Sin et al2005). practitioners and academic literature review was performed to create a


detailed list of customer relationship management practices. About the customer loyalty, Wong and Sohal (2003),explained it as deep willingness to re purchase or even repatronizes a desired commodity or service no matter the situation influence and marketing effort which can have ability to cause change in behaviour. Loyalty has two dimensions, behavioural and attitudinal (Day, 2001; Dick and Basu, 2004).Examples of behavioural loyalty comprises of examples like repeated buying or inviting other people to make purchases among others while examples of attitudinal loyaltyinclude emotional attachment or trust (Baumann et al., 2005). Additionally, behavioural loyalty is not an outright indication of attitudinal loyalty, this is as a result of other existing factors that prevent defection by the customers (Aldlaigan and Buttle, 2005; Reinartz and Kumar, 2002).There has been additional relationship between customer loyalty and profit levels (Reinchheldand kumar, 2002) besides, one of the key objective of customer relationship management is customer- loyalty (Lindgreen, 2004; Das, 2004; Sin et al, 2005; Parvatiyar and Sheth, 2001).

            Gaining better understanding of customer behaviour and the need to concentrate on consumers who can provide profits that are long term have changed the way marketers perceive the world.Conventionally, training has been given to marketers on how to get clients, either by acquiring new customers who have never purchased the particular product prior to or the customers who are at that time rivals.  This requiresextensive mass advertisement and promotions which are oriented to the price to channel members and customers .Now days the conversation is not about how to acquire a customer but how to retain the already existing customers. This calls for a mindset which is different and a 3 new and different tool set.An experiment that is well thought for a given audience andwhich is executive entails finding out their spending power or asking them about how much is spent in relation to targets on retention versus acquisition actions. Whereas there are difficulties in


distinguishing acquisition and retention, acquisition tends to dominate retention. The drive for this attention in customer relationship management originated from Reichheld who indicated the dramatic rise in the level of profits obtained from slight increases in the rates of customer retention. His studies for example indicated that a percentage as low as a rise of 5 percent in terms of retention made a rather high impact  of 95 percent on the acquired net –present- value  from consumers (advertisement agencies ) indicating a 35 percent (computer software). Consultants like McKinsey have done studies indicating that customers who make repeated purchasing produce more than double the gross income level than that of new clients.  The extensive technologicaladvancement modernization of customer relation management associated products has resulted to greater profitability due to reduced customer mix.

            For organizations to attain effective CRM, the adoption of a new working strategy or perspective is important. The organizations must know that conventional customer service relates to the company’s action towards the customer while modern CRM is attained through working with the customer. This description provides an understanding of the differences that exists between conventional service provision to customers and the modern CRM approach. A company’s relationship with its customers must always be continuous, long term and cooperative. For companies that have numerous temporary relationships with their consumers, huge costs are incurred as they have to obtain new clients. The cost a company is likely to incur in maintaining existing customers is extremely lower than that of obtaining new ones.


1.2.4 The principle of Pareto

            This is alternatively referred to as the rule of 80:20  whereby any given company has 20 percent of their clients accounting for a turn over of 80 percent, 20 percent of the clients accounting for a profit of 80 percent and the same 20 percent of clients accounting for 80 percent supply and service problems. This therefore makes it important for the company to clearly identify which clients match a given category as a way of ensuring that they are effectively able to manage them.

            When clients are satisfied and highly value the services and products a company is providing, they become great company advocates. These customers therefore need to be nurtured and given all the special treatment possible. When clients are dissatisfied and have a low opinion of the company and the provided services and products, they become potential saboteurs. As the customers have very little or no loyalty at all for the company, they are likely to act against the company hence companies should ensure that they work towards rebuilding trust and relationships or to ensure that the separation is managed with the highest levels of integrity, professionalism and dignity. 

            The main focus of any given company should always be to create core levels of competencies as well as a basic strategy through which they build customer relationship. Through this, the efforts of the company are likely to be in alignment with clients and a working culture of always being able to be above the expectations of the clients, managing and understanding of the impact of people on the organization’s culture, recognizing and treating clients as partners, valuing relationship building seeing service as an activity that adds value, rewarding and recognizing on the basis of customer focus and showing evidence of existing corporate support in relation to service quality.


1.3 Background of the Study

            Customer Relationship Management is an important section of current business management. It deals with the existing association between the customer and organization. Customers are seen as being the means of support of any organization even if it’s a global corporation with hundreds of thousands of workers and even multi -billion -revenue, or a single trader with just a few regular customers. CRM is similar in terms of principle related to the two given examples that include the range of customer relation management which can differ drastically.

            Customer Relationship Management can also beviewed as a tool in marketing during the modern day business marketing approaches. The globalization and liberalization effects have caused competition levels to soar to very high levels.  With the increased number of businesses having varied products and services to offer to the large number of customers globally in addition to   presence of differentiated products, understanding of customer behaviours is very critical. A number of those who have successfully incorporated its use in their operations have reaped huge profits. Therefore, the integration of CRM applications into the business processes and operations is very critical. (Rigby, 2003)

            Success in the modern business is build on the marketing propositions  hinged on customer service leverage, with companies having customer need requirements analysis mechanisms, as well as having comparative advantage. The ability to retain existing clients and wooing in potential ones is largely dependent on appreciating customer behaviours, quality of customer relations as well as service provision (Thompson et al, 2006).However, the implementation of CRM has been facing various challenges leading to failures or unpleasant outcomes as cited by various literal reviews. Undesirable results that are manifested by inadequacies of


CRM in a company, originate from realignment problems.  This is because; successful implementation requires the integration of a company’s operations into the CRM framework (Goodhue et al, 2002). Additionally, the absence of senior management involvement, as well as failure to incorporate the needs and customer preferences in addition to the company‘s desirable outcomes in line with CRM requirements, has a negative effect on the success of CRM (Nguyen et al, (2007).

            Organizations which are successful have been found to use the following three main levels of developing customer relationships. These include coming up with mutually fulfilling goals between both the clients and the organization, creating and maintaining customer bond and to come up with positive feelings in the organization  

            In order to develop and improve focus on customer relationship management companies are establishing or considering dividing the job of the marketing manager into two sections with the first section being on acquisition while the second is on being able to retain. The skill type mainly required for the success of the two tasks is rather different. In the case of acquisition people skilled in this area are experienced in usual strategic ways of marketing which entails sales, advertising among others. However, in the case of retention skills are quite dissimilar because the job needs a better understanding of the underpinnings of fulfilment of a certain product category. Time is a critical rare resource and it makes it extremely hard to do a brilliant job on both acquisition and retention this resulted to companies employing a chief customer officer [CCO] his or her main job being only to focus on customer interactions.

1.4 Problem Statement

            Customer Relationship Management is currently an important part for any IT organization, Effective implementation of CRM in the organization and effective


Customer service by the organization could bring about competitive advantage for the organization. The current business landscape is faced with many challenges due to liberalization and globalization effects. There has been a shift in the focus on how businesses should be run in order to contain existing customers and woo in new ones. CRM thus becomes very critical role in achieving successful business operations.

The business world is concentrating on issues concerning electronic commerce with the progression of the new millennium (Teo et al., 2003). Electronic commerce covers a lot of activities done using computer internet and networks which includes intra organizational transactions, inter organizational commerce and dealings which involves individual clients. The net is responsible for making a huge important impact on business-to-business (B2B) transactions.There has been prediction from recent studies that revenue which results from the internet Business- 2- Business electronic commerce will reach $6.8 trillion in 2004. This kind of predictions shows the significance of the Internet as a means of showing support to the business activities.

Currently, it seems that the Internet gives almost unrestricted possibilities. In fact, many firms already have experienced sizeable benefits. Among the resultant of the Internet development has been coming up of the World Wide Web which is a net service which arranges information in terms of hyperlink and hypermedia paradigms. Some of the firms have made investments in this particular Web mainly with the need to use it for reducing resources.
Nowadays, World Wide Web possesses huge capabilities as a means of performing management and business activities. CRM is a top modern way of approaching businesses and which has been recognized in literature already. In fact, customer relation management refers to all activities which concerns business focused


towards the initiation, establishment also maintenance and development of successful lasting relational exchanges. Customer loyalty promotion is one of the out come of customer relation management which is seen as a relational fact .There are huge benefits of customer loyalty to a service or product giver and therefore, organizations are keen to attain a vital customer loyal base as is found possible. Current emergence of Internet technology has provided the Internet with a new duty that includes making possible the connection between customer loyalty and CRM. Nearly everything that is presently known concerning the effects of Internet usage on the management of businesses is actually based on evidence, anecdotes, ad hoc –descriptive research studies on experiments. There is a very small obtainable research that tested the out comes of internet on customer relation management that eventually leads to customer loyalty, nevertheless, have opportunities and also threats. The extent of usage of internet used by the organization and the significant commendation it is given might be as a result of its improved interactive and informational capabilities in communication. Through this, it is used like a channel of business and hence results to emergence of a more efficient customer relation management and also the development of latest network–cooperative-opportunities.Nevertheless, the assumption that the Web presents customer relation management opportunities rarely has been empirically tested.               

            The attentiveness of building useful interactions with the customer is a rather old advancement in the business sector .The rising competition and falling consumer loyalty have formed the need to develop  new tools of aiding companies  in wining consumer loyalty and beating competition by coming up with more personalized services and company products .Speedy advancement in the application of systems of information that have allowed business to clients  relations , customers have acquired knowledge about the changing nature of the products and service demand


through the internet technology  thus providing the companies with ability to deal with  the increased knowledge obtained by the customer. Many of the business firms struggle to implement systems of customer relationship management; they encounter the disappointing truth of the critical failure level within their customer relationship management projects establishment.

            As Gartner group indicated, approximately 50 percent of all customer relationship management projects were unsuccessful in attaining their goals (Knox et al, 2003). As a result of high failure percentage of customer relationship management projects a large number of researchers have come up with a variety of framework for customer relationship management Implementing the Customer relationship which involves the use of information technology and the internet in an effective way in all the operations of the organization is important part of the Management. 


1.5 Research Objectives

  1. To analyze the causes of CRM inadequacies in the company
  2. To explore the management role in implementing of CRM strategies
  3. To assess the CRM implementation approaches
  4. To investigate the impacts inadequate CRM has caused to the success of Tech Mahindra
  5.  To analyze the importance of CRM


1.6 Research Questions

  1. What entails CRM applications implementation process?
  2. Why has CRM incorporation in company business operations become elusive for many businesses?
  3. What role does the management have on the successful implementation of CRM?
  4. How can the challenges facing CRM assimilation in business enterprises’ operations tackled?

Scope of the Study

The research study covers:

  • The management policy on customer relations
  • The relationship between the management and customer relations staff in implementation of CRM applications and whether other stakeholders are involved.
  • The extent of the CRM application inadequacy impact on Tech Mahindra Company profitability


1.7 Significance of the Study

            The implementation of Customer Relationship Management is an undertaking that has been found to be of essence and that every company needs to include in their improvement strategies. Through CRM companies are effectively able to ensure they do not just attract new and more customers into their business but that they also get to retain the already existing ones by providing quality services and


products and ensuring that the customers remain satisfied by the delivery of services. CRM helps in building a strong and satisfactory relationship between the customers and the employees of the business. This makes ittherefore a way to improve business, level of productivity and profitability. CRM implementation has numerous numbers of impacts for businesses. The findings of this study will help in identifying the impacts that the implementation of CRM at Tech Mahindra has had on the company.

            This research study will allow for the identification of the various inadequacies in the implementation of CRM at Tech Mahindra as well as identify the various causes for these inadequacies. This will be important in being able to develop control or corrective measures for the inadequacies and to ensure that the implementation falls back on line and that it meets the objectives it was previously set to achieve. The inadequacies of CRM have largely been contributed by lack of initiative of top management. For any successful implementation of a project or policy roll out, the management has a huge influence. The decisions taken and the support extended to implementation staff are very critical.

            It is also from the obtained findings of this study that we will be able to explore on what roles the management at Tech Mahindra has and is playing in the implementation of Customer Relationship Management.

            The findings are will also help in assessing the various Customer Relationship Management approaches that the management at Tech Mahindra are embarking on in the maintenance of the system as well as those that they used during the implementation. In most cases, the involvement of the stakeholders in the company’s objective of CRM roll out is key to successful implementation. However, the unwillingness and support of the management in as well as participation of all the stakeholders, is the main cause of the apparent inadequacies.



            Another great significance of this study is that through it and the obtained findings, we will be able to correctly investigate the various inadequacies in the CRM system at Tech Mahindra as well as identify the effects that these inadequacies may have had on the company. This will be important such that corrective measures can in turn be put in place to prevent any further loss or damage for the company.

             By identifying the various benefits that the implementation of CRM has had on Tech Mahindra, then the importance of Customer Relationship Management are going to be identified and analyzed not only for that particular firm, but also for all other companies as well. The obtained findings of the research therefore allow for other companies can be able to make a proper decision on whether to implement CRM or not. The findings also provide a chance for the companies to learn from the mistakes made by Tech Mahindra leading to inadequate CRM implementation and ensure that they do not repeat the same mistakes during their own implementation processes.




CHAPTER TWO: Critical Literature Review

2.1. Introduction

            This includes a review of existing literature as an account of the knowledge and ideas that have been established by accredited scholars and experts in the field of study. It is guided by the objectives of the study outlined in chapter one. These include analyzing the causes of CRM inadequacies in Tech Mahindra, exploring the role of the management in the implementation of CRM strategies, assessing the CRM implementation approaches, investigating the impact inadequate CRM has on the success of Tech Mahindra and analyzing the importance of CRM.

2.1.1   Literature Search Strategy

            The literature search strategy entailed the use of browse method of accessing library literature.The search was done from the college library and the internet. This aimed at finding good and relevant literature for the topic as well as looking at the selected vocabulary to be bale to remove or deduce any other limited vocabulary likely to be made use of within the subject parameter.  Through the use of the browse mode or subject search and putting in the controlled – vocabulary within the database print version, relevant articles and information was obtained as well as others that were not relevant. Relevance of the material was identified by quickly looking through the information given and identifying if it will be useful for the research. The reviewed literature included text books and peer reviewed journals dated from the year 2000 to 2011. Multiple searches on the database were done to discover recent publications. The search terms used were only limited to the publications ranging between the identified years of 2000 to 2011. All the identified publications were then examined and the relevant ones retrieved to be used for the


literature review. The reference lists for all the retrieved documents or publications were manual or hand searched so as to identify any additional publications.

The specifications for the search engine that was used includedGoogle search conducted through the internet and also the use of search terms and the specific dates for the search. The search terms or key words used for identifying the relevant information for the study topic included CRM, customer loyalty, client satisfaction, client lifetime value, CRM strategy and CRM in Tech Mahindra.


Choice Criteria Box 3.16 page 93 in Saunders

Boolean logic


Problems and how you solve them



2.1.2 Structure of literature review

            The literature review of this study focuses on the following subjects and issues: Part I. Customer Relationship Management: its definition and a brief description.


Part II. Major CRM elements

Part III. Implementation of the right Customer Relationship Management solutions

Part IV. Types of Customer Relationship Management solutions: a) Off the shelf solutions b) Outsourced solutions c) Managed solutions d) Bespoke software

Part V.Components of Customer Relationship Management: a) Technology b) People c) Business process

Part VI. Failures in the implementation of CRM

Part VII. CRM strategy and level of response

Part VIII. Behaviours and needs related to CRM

Part IX.Benefits of Customer Relationship Management: a)Distributed or shared data b) Cost reduction c) Quality and improved Customer service d) Enhanced



customer satisfaction e) Better retention of customersf) Increased new business g) Increased repeat business h. Reduced costs i) Increased profits

Part X.  Assessment of CRM benefits

Part XI. The Management role in implementing CRMStrategies

Part XII.Impact of Inadequacy of CRM on Success of Companies: a) Effects on customer, loyalty and retention b) Effects on the management c) Effects on marketing.

Part XIII. Customer Relationship Management at Tech Mahindra a) Customer Experience Enhancement Engine              Theoretical frame of reference
The list below represents the various reviewed literatures that have been critically analyzed to develop the chapter on critical literature review and that have been used to obtain information on Customer Relationship Management: its various elements, benefits, components and solutions, the roles played by the management in its implementation as well as the impacts its inadequacy will have on the success of companies. In the literature review there are about thirty five references. Out of that main concept which the researcher used here is mentioned below with the author’s name and year.
Author        Year      Concept
Adelaar, T. (2000) CRM technology
Aldlaigan and Buttle, F. (2005) customer satisfaction

Ali, A.  and Alshawi, S. (2003) CRM implementation

Alt, R. and Puschmann, T. (2004)Benefits of CRM


Arussy, L.  (2005) Inadequate CRM implementation

 Blumberg, D. (2002) CRM implementation

Bohling, T., Bowman, D., LaValle, S., Ramani, G. et al. (2005) Inadequate CRM implementation.

Chalmeta, R. (2006) CRM benefits

Darrellm and Ledingham (2004) CRM benefits

Dick, A., and Basu, K. (2004) CRM benefits: Customer loyalty

Dwyer, et al. (2007) Benefits of CRM: customer retention

Evans,R. and Laskin, L. (2001) CRM benefits

Gefen, D. (2002) CRM benefits: Customer loyalty

Goodhue, et al. 2002 CRM benefits

Kale, H. (2004) CRM implementation failure

King, F. & Burgees, F. (2007) CRM implementation failure

Kristin, A. and Kerr, C. (2002) overview of Customer Relationship Management

MacFarlane, M. (2011) CRM customer satisfaction and loyalty

McCalla, et al. ( 2003) causes of CRM failure

Nevin, J. (2005) CRM overview

Nguyen T et al. (2007) Behaviours and needs related to CRM

Payne, A. and Frow, P. (2004) CRM implementation failures and benefits

Payne, M and Ballantyne, D. (2002) CRM benefits


Peppers, D, Rogers, M & Dorf, B. (2000) Efective CRM implemntation

Rigby, D.  and Ledingham, D. (2004) Inadequate CRM implementation: impacts

Rigby, et al. (2002) Inadequate CRM implementation: impacts

Rowley, J. and Dawes, J. (2000) "Disloyalty: a closer look at non-loyals", Journal of         Consumer Marketing, 17 (6):538 – 547

Tech Mahindra (2011) CRM implementation at Tech Mahindra

Thirkell, C. and Huff, L. (2007)CRM solutions

Thompson S., Devadoss, P. and Pan, L. (2006) CRM components

Treacy, M. and Wiersema, F. (2005) Role of the management in implementing CRM

Peel, J. (2002) CRM overview

Varadarajan.R. (2006) CRM benefits

Verhoef, C. and Langerak, C. (2002) CRM failure

Zeithaml, et al. (2002) successful CRM implementation

A brief overview of how each of the above references has been used in the paper is as illustrated below.

Adelaar, T. (2000) Looks at the use of technology in CRM with focus being on Electronic commerce and its effects on market structure. Aldlaigan and Buttle, F. (2005) explores on the level of customer satisfaction that customers acquire from the services rendered by retail banks.Ali and Alshawi (2003) assess the impact that cross culture may have on the implementation of CRM. This reference has been useful in finding information on the various elements and components that make up CRM.


Alt and Puschmann (2004) look at the successful CRM practices and have been effective in providing information on the benefits of CRM on companies. Arussy, L.  (2005) points out on the various mistakes made when implementing CRM and the need to understand them. The book has been useful in identifying how best CRM can be successfully implemented to achieve set goals. 

Blumberg, D. (2002) has been used to explain e commerce and how effective it can be during CRM implementation. Bohling, Bowman, LaValle and Ramani, et al. (2005) have helped in identifying the various reasons for CRM failure. Chalmeta, R. (2006) brings out important concepts about CRM implementation and has been useful in identifying CRM benefits and the role of computerization.

Darrellm and Ledingham (2004) have also been useful in analysing CRM benefits in this study. Dick, A., and Basu, K. (2004) bring out the concept of customer loyalty as a product of CRM. The journal has not only been useful in the literature review but also in the defining customer loyalty.

According to Dwyer, Schurr, and Oh (2007) it is important to fully involve customers and staff members in the implementation of CRM. I have also used the references in discussing customer retention as a basic aim of implementing CRM.

Evans and Laskin (2001) focus on relationship marketing through CRM. Through the book, I have been able to identify CRM as being a strategy that allows for business processes to be customer focused. E-commerce is an important part of CRM and that is a great contributor of customer loyalty as brought out by Gefen, (2002).

The journal marketing management by Goodhue, Wixom and Watson (2002) has been useful through in both chapter one and two of these paper. The journal has especially been useful in identifying CRM benefits. Kale, (2004) talks of CRM failure. It is from the author’s journal that information on the main causes of CRM failure as


well as on the importance of effective decision making processes in ensuring success in CRM implementation. The works of King & Burgees (2007) clearly brings out the dos and don’ts in the implementation of CRM and have been helpful in identifying causes of CRM failure and factors necessary for successful implementation.

Kristin and Kerr (2002) broadly discuss the concept of CRM and have therefore been useful in the entire chapters one and two of the study. Through his soft ware guide, MacFarlane, (2011) bring out the importance of CRM in developing systems of tracking clients and analysing their various needs, undertakings that are effective in ensuring that service delivery is improved and that have been emphasised in the paper as contributors of customer satisfaction and loyalty.

McCalla, et al. (2003) has been useful in identifying the cause of failure in CRM implantation and what needs to be done to ensure success. Using the work by Nevin (2005) in this section of the research study has been to create a clearer understanding of the concept of CRM inclusive of the definition.

Nguyen, Sherif and Newby (2007) in their article “Strategies for successful CRM implementation” have given me detailed information to discuss on the failures during CRM implementation, benefits of CRM and Behaviours and needs related to CRM.

Payne and Frow (2004) provides information that I have used in discussing CRM implementation failures and the benefits resulting from CRM.  Payne and Ballantyne (2002) on the other hand identify the benefits that CRM implementation by a company may have on the marketing and marketing strategies.

Peppers,Rogers& Dorf (2000) and Peppers and Rogers (2003) in their various works focus on one- to- one marketing. A review of the book and articles presented by the authors respectively gave some insight on effective CRM implementation through focus on individual clients.


Works by Rigby and Ledingham (2004) and Rigby Reichheld and Schefter (2002) have been relevant in providing information on CRM failures and the impact of inadequate CRM implementation.

Rowley and Dawes (2000) also look at customer loyalty in marketing and therefore help in understanding the concept.

Information of the implementation of CRM at Tech Mahindra has been obtained from their website and cited as Tech Mahindra (2011). This gives more information on CE3: Customer Experience Enhancement Engine as the technological solution used.

By identifying the strategic value that CRM has Thirkell and Huff (2007) view CRM as a strategy. Their article has been useful on understanding the concept as a strategy and in providing information related the various CRM solutions with emphasis being on off the shelf solution.Thompson, Devadoss and Pan (2006) explores on the various components of CRM. In this paper the journal article has been used to obtain information on technology as one of the components and the various benefits of implementing CRM.

Treacy and Wiersema (2005) have been effective in identifying the roles that managers play during CRM implementation. Peel, J. (2002) also helps in providing an overview on the modern concept of CRM.

A statement by Varadarajan (2006) as illustrated in the reviewed literature section below indicates the importance of CRM in increasing company revenue, productivity and profitability. Verhoef and Langerak (2002) through their work “Eleven misconceptions about customer relationship management” provide information on failures in CRM implementation and identify the assumption that CRM equates customer acquisition and that customer satisfaction equates customer loyalty as being one reason for CRM failure.


Zeithaml, Parasuraman & Leonard (2002) discusses on the importance of integrating different processes to ensure successful CRM implementation. According to these authors synchronizing the various processes prepares the business for a rise in the level of output. The authors describe the implementation of CRM as that which entails three key business processes which are sales, services and marketing.

            Each of the above references was effective in providing information related to the various areas of the topic of Customer Relationship Management. All the information collected from the literatures was relevant and sufficient enough. The reviewed literature will be useful handling the rest of the chapters of this dissertation in such a way that they provide a basis through which the primary data is to be collected. The findings from the primary research can later be compared to those obtained by the various other researches done by the various authors, within the literature review, and the comparison results later be used to come up with suitable conclusions. The reviewed literature will also be effective in developing recommendations at the end of this dissertation.

2.2 Customer Relationship Management

            Customer Relationship Management, abbreviated as CRM, isdefined as the tools and methodologies through which businesses are able to manage relationships with their customers in a manner that is organized.This management process is according to Thirkell and Huff (2007) a strategy that has been adopted by many companies all over the globe as a way of effectively managing their various interactions with their clines, consumers as well as sales prospects. It entails the process of organizing, automating and synchronizing business processes through the adoption and use of technology. This according to Nevin (2005)does not only apply to company sales but also to other activities within the business such as


technical support, marketing, customer care and service. CRM can therefore be said to aim at identifying, attracting and bringing in new customers into the business, nurturing and retaining the already existing ones, bringing back former clients and reducing the marketing costs and customer service. Customer relationship management in this case incorporates strategies to allow for effective business functioning within the departments of customer interface and also within other departments

            Customer Relationship Management in small businesses entails a number of processes. One such process is that which helps in identifying and targeting a company’s best clients, promoting quality and leading sales, planning and implementing marketing campaigns that are marked with clear and precise objectives and goals. Every set objective must always be SMART meaning that it should be specific, possible to measure, achievable, very realistic and also time bound. CRM as a process also allows for the formation of individualized interactions with clients, which in turn promotes customer satisfaction, and for the provision of the highest quality of client service to customers seen as having the highest profit gains.  As another process, CRM provides staff members with all the necessary to information through which they will be capable of correctly identifying the various wants and the needs oftheir customers as well as build strong relationships between the consumers and the company (Arussy, 2005).

            Communication has always been regarded as being the key for any relationship to be successful. In the case of CRM, the existing relationship should be of high quality as well as consistent. It also needs to be focused, relevant, reliable, on time and coherent. The main thing when it comes to communication is the message that has been sent and the meaning that has been obtained on the other


end. This falls irrespective of the communicator’s thoughts on what they may have said. Communication should be judged according to the reaction given by the receiver such that when the given observed reaction is bad, then the communication can be termed as poor.

            All information within the system of CRM ensures that communication is correctly directed to the audience. The system also needs to ensure that it facilitates and encourages actionable and honest feedback. The information that contained within the system of CRM system makes it possible for communication directing to the right audience and in the right way. The system of communication should allow for encouragement and facilitation of actionable feedback and honesty (Kristin and Kerr, 2002).

            The main tools used in customer relationship management include browser and software based applications whose function entails collecting and organizing important information about a company’s clients. As an effective strategy for example, a company may use an existing database containing information about their customer during he construction of a client satisfaction survey or during decision making on which of their new products are the clients most interested in (Kale, 2004).

2.3Major CRM elements

            As a strategy, CRM aims at accomplishing three key requirements. One such requirement is to ensure that it provides as an enterprise or existing business the ability to fully view and understand every client to allow for unified and consistent contact between the client and any of the employees within the enterprise.



The knowledge of this helps in increasing the sales opportunities as well as customer service effectiveness (Kristin and Kerr, 2002).

            The second requirement that needs to be fulfilled by CRM is to enable clients to consistently and fully view and understand the enterprise without considering the customer’s mode of contact. This is an effective way through which customer satisfaction and retention can be improved.

            The third requirement is that enabling the staff at the front office to conduct marketing, service and sales tasks in an efficient manner ensuring teamwork as a means of increasing expertise and making a reduction in costs.

            Through CRM business owners are more able to manage and even report client and contact interactions with other business contacts inclusive of both outside and inside sales, shipping, billing, customer service as well as support (Ali and Alshawi, 2003).

2.4 Implementing the right Customer Relationship Management solutions

            Implementation of CRM as a business strategy is an undertaking that is capable of havinghuge impacts on a business enterprise. This implementation is however one that requires for an effective decision making process to be done. Making the right decision therefore requires a number of factors to be considered. According to Thirkell and Huff (2007) one key factor is the need to identify the goals that CRM intends to achieve. Some of these goals may entail improving customer service to attract and maintain clients, improving product development through increased collection of customer data or integrating customer data collected from various sources. Goal identification allows for the relevant and most effective strategies to b put in place.


ICT and software are very important in enhancing the achievement of effective customer relationship management capability and mainly in large firms. There are different kinds of systems available in the market to day hence there is need to ensure that one has a clear understanding of the various requirements necessary during the process of selecting soft ware solutions. This process in most cases will require that the company also chooses a preferable provide of ICT as the implementation of any given soft ware solutions and mainly in large companies calls for support in the processes of providing specifications, implementing, training as well as maintaining. Just like in any other project related to ICT, it is necessary to ensure that the selected advisors are not only knowledgeable but also reliable and that they have access to solutions that have been proven to be cost effective. The advisors should also be those that are capable of building and implementing effective ICT capability and CRM soft ware. 

            Conducting a market research is also a crucial factor necessary for the right implementation of the various CRM solutions. This process entails identifying the leading sellers and the existing price range, identifying the various technologies being used by the competitors and interacting with the trade associations related to the business.

            Another important factor is the need to always focus on the kind of CRM required. The CRM could in this case be networked, generic, web hosted, standalone, real time access, special customization or industry specific. By identifying the kind of CRM required then one is able to able to effectively select the correct tools, requirements and procedures needed for the implementation process.



Identification of interface requirements is another important factor which entails identifying other Customer Relationship management systems like for example those that are used by a business’s partners within the supply chain, legacy systems, product- data management systems and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems.

            Making the right decisions during CRM implementation also requires that a business quantifies the expected benefits. This entails identifying the probable effects the implementation will have on the level of profitability, revenues and cost of customer service. A cost benefit analysis  is in this case used to identify the various costs like for example the cost  per every user or license, the number of licenses required, rent or buying cost and ISDN or broadband costs if large files are to be transferred.

            The implementation should also be done in such a way that if the CRM implementation is being done for a specific function within the business, then every new solution should be in such a way that it can be integrated with the already existing ones. If a new working technique is introduced, it is bound to affect other business areas. If the customer increases for example, then this is likely to cause an impact on stock management, sales and purchasing. Synchronizing the various processes prepares the business for a rise in the level of output (Zeithaml, et al. 2002).

            Another important factor is one related to sufficient and efficient process of collecting data. This call s for the need to always ensure that all data collected is put into consideration when making decisions. It is through efficient data collection for example that a business can be able to identify if they have sufficient resources to


cater for an increase in customer response and in turn develop alternative solutions or relevant control measures if the resources are not enough.

            Security and protection of data is another important factor that influences decision making during CRM implementation. It is important to always ensure that the system created provides complete protection to the privacy of the clients. This therefore calls for the business implementing the system to register under the Act of data protection. One should ensure that all information included in the system is created in such a way that only the relevant parties within the company are able to access it (Peppers and Rogers 2003).

            Customer relationship Management involves collaboration as well as sharing of information within and outside a business firm. This therefore means that there are several decisions that require to be made before the system is implemented into a given company or business. These decisions include; identifying if the various solutions match the partners within the supply chain, identifying if the company is ready to make any necessary changes in the culture and if the systems are secure. Planning for partnerships or collaboration requires the company to plan on any additional training that the employees will require to effectively and efficiently handle the system. Companies should also ensure that they liaise with their key customers and suppliers on issues such as the kind of soft wares they are using, available hardware platforms as well as their policies of collaboration. The project should be broken down into manageable parts and a pilot-study set up. The set up plans should be inclusive of a measurable architecture. 

            According to Peel (2002) a correct implementation process also requires that the company gets to try out the systems before that actual purchase and installation of the system. Installation of demonstration versions is an effective way of identifying


the viability of the system, if the actual installation is necessary, any evident challenges and benefits. It can as well be utilized for comparing the features of the various systems and in turn enables one to make the best decision on which one should be purchased (Kristin and Kerr, 2002).

            Planning for the roll out stage or phase ensures that critical decisions relating to the system are made like for example if the CRM system is to be integrated into the business in stages, the duration of time required for the project to be complete, employees that will required to be trained and their cost for training and the need to know if external expertise are required to give advice on the process of implementation (Kale, 2004).

2.5 Types of CRM solutions

            CRM is an important undertaking in promoting business success. The better the existing relationship between the business and its clients and other partners, the easier it becomes to do business and create revenue in return (Varadarajan, 2006). The use of technology to make improvements on CRM can therefore be said to be a wise move. CRM solution can be grouped into four main categories as discussed below.

2.5.1 Off the shelf solutions

            A number of software companies provide Customer Relationship management applications that are incorporated into the already existing packages. Smaller businesses require cut down versions of these soft wares this approach can be regarded as being the cheapest selection as the company invests in software components that are up to standard. The software may however not always function as is expected thus the company sometimes has to trade functionality for price and


convenience. Flexibility is therefore necessary to allow for success in business (Thirkell and Huff, 2007).

2.5.2 Outsourced solutions

            These include web based solutions that are provided by application service providers. The solutions are mainly useful if a company needs to implement a given solution quickly and lacks the in house skills required to handle the job from start to finish. For companies that are geared to e- marketing already, this is also an appropriate solution (Gefen, 2002).

2.5.3 Bespoke software

            Developing an ultimate mark in modified CRM solutions calls for software engineers and consultants to customize a system that can be incorporated into already existing software within the company. This is not only an expensive undertaking but one that also takes a lot of time. Selecting this process will require a company to ensure that they effectively specify their exact requirements. The cost of the soft wares is dependent on the software- designer quotes. In most cases, this solution is seen as being the most expansive as compared to all other solutions (Blumberg, 2002).

2.5.4 Managed solutions

This solution falls between outsourced and bespoke solutions and involves leasing a CRM application suite that is customized as a bespoke solution or package. In this case, the solution is cost effective though the company will need to compromise when it comes to functionality (Peel, 2002).



2.6 Components of Customer Relationship Management

            Researchers have brought out different definitions for Customer relationship Management. These definitions however though different are related in one way or another. In categorizing the various components that make up CRM, researchers seem to agree on five main ones which include technology, business culture, process, relationships and people (Ali and Alshawi, 2003). The implementation level determines the contribution to every of these components.

2.6.1 Technology

            Technology is defined as the computing ability of a business to effectively and efficiently collect, manage, save and utilize customer data (Adelaar 2000). It allows Customer relationship Management systems to attain their various set objectives related to the collection, classification and saving of valuable customer data (Payne and Frow, 2004). Integration technology enables creates an opportunity for businesses to build up better and stronger relationships with their clients through the provision of a wider customer behavioural perception (Thompson et al., 2006). This therefore means that companies essentially need to incorporate the use of Information Technology as a way of ensuring that they are effectively able to understand the behaviour of their clients, come up with predictive models, establish effective modes of communication with the clients and give response to the clients using accurate and real time information. The integration of IT into a company requires that concepts like software customization, data warehouse, call centres and help desks, internet influence and process automation be addressed (Blumberg, 2002).





2.6.2 People

            Dwyer et al.(2007)believe that for any CRM project to be successful staff members and customers play a major role. CRM deals with managing a company’s relationship with its various clients through the acquisition of information related to various aspects of consumers.CRM mainly aims at translating customer data into  customized services and products needed to meet the ever changing need of consumers as a means of obtaining loyalty from clients. It is essential for the staff members and the management team to ensure that they fully committed to the task in order for the process of CRM implementation to be successful in providing quality service to consumers and in meeting their various needs.

2.6.3 Business process

            According to Evans and Laskin (2001)CRM as a business strategy is based on relationship marketing. Successful implementation of CRM is best achieved when companies change their business processes to those that are customer focused. This therefore means that all companies whose processes of business involve indirect and direct interaction with clients be assessed and analysed. The priority for the business processes related to CRM should be given to enhancing direct interactions with consumers. The implementation of CRM entails three key business processes which are sales, services and marketing (Zeithaml, et al. 2002).

2.7 Failures in the implementation of CRM

            A number of researches have previously been undertaken to investigateon the various causes of the successful implementation of CRM in many companies(Rigby and Ledingham. 2004; Wisktron, 2004). Different reasons have been identified as being causes of CRM failing to meet the set objectives. Though some of these reasons are unavoidable most of them can be controlled and prevented from


occurring. In most cases, CRM failure results from organizational and technical issues related to the implementation of CRM. Studies conducted to identify these failures have brought out many different causes and in turn identified the basis for the occurrence of various problems that hinder many implementations from successfully meeting their objectives. (Goodhue et al. 2002). Nguyen et al, (2007) identifies factors like for example support from the top management, alignment of the various internal processes, bringing together  the CRM project and the high level strategies set up by organizations, focusing on Return on Investment (ROI) as well as attaining success during the early stages of the project.

            The main causes of failure in CRM implementation include, identifying CRM as purely being technology oriented, lack of an effective management support, failure to have an organizational culture that is customer focused, failure to develop a readiness process, data being of poor quality, failure to have change management, lack of strategy and vision as well as failure to involve the end user in the identification of CRM solutions (Chalmeta, 2006). These factors have further been supported by Kale (2004) who identifies causes of CRM failure which include identification of CRM as being technology, lack of a culture that is customer focused, failure to fully appreciate the life time value of the customer, lack of support from top management, failure to recognize the need to ensure change management, failures related to re engineering processes of doing business and under estimating the various hindrances or complexity related to data integration and mining. 

            Other research studies have identified general causes of CRM failure. One such study for example analyses CRM in 650 companies and identifies the causes of the failure as that which results from organizational change, lack of sufficient skills in CRM, poor company policies and failure to comprehensively understand CRM. Rigby et al. (2002) describes failure to develop effective CRM strategies as being the major cause of CRM failure. The researcher based on his findings then describes four risks


that need to be controlled for a successful CRM implementation process. this include the implementation of CRM before laying out a customer strategy, implementing CRM before an organizational change is done to suit the implementation, making the assumption that more success will be obtained from more CRM technology and stalking rather than wooing clients. Factors like for example failure to focus on social or human factors, customers and staff, have however been recognized as being the main causes of implementation process of CRM failure (Bohling et al, 2006; King and Burgess, 2007and McCalla et al, 2003). In addition to this, the assumption that CRM equates customer acquisition and that customer satisfaction equates customer loyalty could be another reason for the process of CRM implementation to fail (Verhoef and Langerak, 2002).

            Poor planning is also another identified factor that results into implementation failures of CRM. Initiatives are more likely to fail when the put in efforts are only limited software selection and deployment without any other accompanying support, rationale and context for the employees. In other situations, companies just automate those client oriented processes they regard as flawed rather than redesigning them to those that promote best practices. Poor integration could also be another implementation issue whose end result is failure in the successful CRM execution (Payne and Frow, 2004). Integrations for many companies are key initiatives towards the provision of solutions to identified problems as well as meeting the various needs that mainly include improving a given customer oriented process or even automating a particular channel of client support or favoured sales. Such solutions offer insignificant alignment or integration with the overall business strategy. They fail to provide a complete view of the customer and as result lead to customer dissatisfaction (Aldlaigan and Buttle, 2005).




In a bid to find a solution to the failure of CRM implementation process, it is important that companies avoid soloed thinking and decision making. Recommendations from the various researches done emphasise on the need for organizations to integrate their customer oriented operations (Treacy and Wiersema,2005). This means that views that are department and internally focused be dealt away with and replaced with processes geared towards information sharing across sales, service and marketing. Sales representatives should for example be aware of the pertinent marketing promotions and current issues before cross selling to a particular customer. The marketing staffs on the other hand needs to ensure that they leverage customer information from service and sales to improved and better target offers and campaigns. Support agents need to have fast and completer access to the service and sales history of customers (Thompson et al., 2006).

2.8 CRM strategy and level of response

            Through customer relationship management enterprises are able to have a clear understanding of their customers and in turn group them into various categories. They are also able to identify potential target client base. This according to Verhoef and Langerak, (2002) enables swift responses to be made to the various questions thus allowing for continuous, instantaneous and frequent to be given on the frequently changing perspectives and desires of customers.CRM is beneficial to a business if it is viewed as a tool set that allows a company to continuously work for as well as acquire from the customers (Kale, 2004).

            Practicing Customer Relationship Management calls for a business system that is not only efficient but also internally integrated. A high number of enterprises from the imposed organizational discipline from the implementation of CRM and also from the specific technology itself.Through CRM technology, companies are


effectively able to gather and manage mass customer data while at the same time undertaking various strategies in relation to the information. CRM initiatives make it possible for companies to provide specific solutions to specific client oriented problems all through the client relationship cycle (McCalla et al, 2003)

2.9 Behaviours and needs related to CRM

            According toChalmeta (2006), computerization has brought about a huge change in the way companies are responding to the CRM strategies they are using to deal with the change in the behaviour pattern of the consumers. Through the increased use self service channels such as mobile phones and the internet customers are directly served without having to physically get to the company. As a way of gaining competitive advantage, companies are searching for innovative ways through which they can personalize as well as enhance online experiences (mass customization) through the use of various tools that include web development applications, help desk software and email organizers. Operational CRM supports front office business processes that are inclusive ofservice, marketing and sales. Every interaction made with customers isrecorded as client’s contact history. Staff members can in this case easily retrieve any necessary information from the database. This therefore makes contact history beneficial in such a way that customers can communicate with more than one staff member and at different times without necessarily having to narrate their interaction history every now and then. Basically call centres support their agents through the use of CRM software (Goodhue et al, 2002).

            CRM initiatives also provides companies with new and up to date insights into the behaviors and needs of customers  and in turn enables them to effectively work towards providing customized products that meet the specific needs of the various


targeted consumer groups. As a result, apart from being targeted at marketing initiatives, CRM initiatives can be said to play a very key role in other business functions such as research and development, supply chain management, development of new products and improvement of business processes.  Outstanding customer service comes from knowing the specific needs of customers and being able to effectively attend to them. CRM helps organizations to understand, predict and also respond to the various needs oftheir consumers in a manner that is consistent (Nguyen et al, 2007).

3.0 Benefits of CRM

            CRM is seen as a new idea to most of the organizations. The organizations have however began to understand its importance a reason why most successful organizations dedicate a more energy and also resources to the build and manage customer Relationship Management capability. The main aim that CRM seeks to achieve, like any other organizational plan, is to raise the profits of the organization. Concerning customer relationship management, this is attained mainly by giving good customer service than that given by competitors. The main aim of customer relationship management is not only to improve the customer service through a good customer relationship management capability but also to reduce costs, wastage, and complaints.

            Previously undertaken researches have indicated a number of benefits for companies that have implemented Customer Relationship management Systems. These researches have identified almost similar findings and therefore given common benefits that most companies in different parts of the world have identified (Kristin and Kerr, 2002). A successful implementation of customer relationships management can be defined as being a key to the success of every business. If


CRM is well implemented within a company, then that company is promised of better service to their customers and an increase in the level of profitability (Thompson et al., 2006). CRM benefits are many and diverse and can be compared to the number of businesses making the implementations. Implementing Customer Relationship Management has been found to be a very smart solution towards gaining competitive advantage.

Customer Relationship Management can have huge impacts on a company through the reformation of the offer given to the client requirements and not what the company can make, changing the center of attention from product to customer and concentrating on the competences needed for an effective customer relation management. A CRM system that is well implemented will be capable of increasing clientele satisfaction and even increase the business’s profit level. In the real sense, actual CRM benefits are endless and diverse just like various companies adopting processes and software (Blumberg, 2002).CRM implementation within a business is an investment that is worthwhile and creates a smart business solution that allows the business to remain competitive(Goodhue et al, 2002). With CRM, companies are more able to comprehend the various needs and requirements of their clients, effectively meet the identified needs, make predictions on the market trends as well as enhance their bottom line. The companies are basically able to attain a number of benefits. Chalmeta (2006) identifies these benefits as discussed below: Customer relationship management which is effective also reduces staff stress, because wearing out of the staff which is a chief source of stress decreases as the relationships and services improve. 




  • Distributed or shared data

            As more and more companies continue to notice that customer relationships are taking place not just through web presence or customer service but through many other levels, they have now began to understand that the importance and need for data sharing all through the organization. Customer relationships Management systems allows for informed decision making processes in companies as well as follow up at the various levels (Nguyen et al, 2007).

  • Cost reduction

            CRM plays a key role in making customers business partners rather than being just subjects. Through CRM customers are able to make informed decisions, make their own order- entries and carry out other procedures without necessarily having to seek support from the staff. In this case, less staff members are required thus reducing company costs that might have been spent on hiring more staff members (Treacy and Wiersema,2005).

  • Quality and improved Customer service

            Every kind of data related to customer interaction is centralized and in turn provides the department of customer service with all the necessary information in such a way that it is readily available. This therefore means that the customer will not be asked to provide an interaction history every time he or she is making a transaction with the company. Through push technology, customer service representatives can direct clients towards any kind of information that they require (Payne and Ballantyne,2002).The customer can easily work through the system and access any of the required information on their own without necessarily seeking


assistance from the support team (Dywer et al, 2002). Through eCRM, web based CRM, a web access to customer data and database is created. When consumers and potential clients or willing buyers interact with a company through email, chat, CRM solutions allow for the facilitation of efficient management of, convenient and helpful responses to the various enquiries from the customers. Through this therefore, customer experience is highly enhanced(Blumberg, 2002).

  • Enhanced customer satisfaction

            Through CRM consumers feel that they are part of the company and not just subjects for marketing and sales. The system allows for the needs of the consumer to be anticipated and therefore effectively addressed and also ensures that the service presented to them is of extremely high quality (Thompson et al., 2006). As a unified marketing- message to clients, CRM responds to various issues related to sharing of customer data as well as the provision of a seamless mode of contact and fulfillment experiences for the customers. Additionally, CRM promotes the creation of a systematic and organized system of selling, marketing and servicing customers for a given company. Each interaction with the customer is conducted in a manner that is effective and consistent. This in turn results in an increased consumer satisfaction (Peel, 2002).

  • Better retention of customers

            High levels of customer satisfaction is likely to result into customer loyalty meaning that companies that have successfully implemented CRM are more likely to retain their customers as the customers are ever willing to always come back to the company for more products or services (Dick and Basu, 2004).


  • Increased new business

            When the already existing customers for a given company are offered quality services and products and when they are completely satisfied with the rendered services, they are more likely to pass the word over to their friends and other interested parties. As more and more of these customers continue to inform others of the company and invite them to purchase from the said company, the company in turn gains in new clients who can then inform or invite others and so on.This creates an increased in new business (Peel, 2002).

  • Increased repeat business

            With a continuous provision of quality customer service, consumers who at some point may have been planning to change into another company or who were not consistent with that particular company and therefore would purchase from different other companies are converted into loyal customers who can only purchase from that particular company that has implemented CRM.

  • Reduced costs

            By using CRM, activities and overall work within a company becomes coordinated and systematic. This in turn reduces the wastage of funds an aspect that reduces the costs of labour and promotes more efficient and effective business operations. The front end applications of CRM also play a great role in the reduction of costs through their integration with back- end systems that may include manufacturing and accounting.



  • Increased profits

            With an increase in the level of customer retention, attraction of new clients into the business and an increase in business at reduced costs, the level of profitability for the business is bound to increase. Another way through which Customer Relationship Management increases profits is due to its ability to create sales cycles that are shorter as a result of the efficient process of managing orders and accounts. This in turn results into long term level of profitability and business growth as the number of business opportunities continue to get maximised.

            Other benefits that are brought about by the use of CRM in companies include the development of better channels of communication, effectiveness in the collection and storage of vital data and information, creation of detailed profiles like for example those of customer preferences, promotion of instant delivery of requested information by customers and effective identification of new opportunities for selling (Darrellm and Ledingham, 2004).

3.0.1 Assessment of CRM benefits

            It is possible to measure and quantify the benefits that are brought about by the implementation of CRM within a given company. This can effectively be done using the various dependent factors. through the use of the application for example, the company revenue is bound to increase as a result of reduced costs of operations which can be easily quantified, an increased level of cross selling resulting from the provision of a single contact point with the company, increased success in bringing in new clients and fast closure of deals through faster and more effective and efficient responses to client leads and information (Peel, 2002) , simplified sales and marketing processes by clearly understanding the needs of the clients as well as


provision of better client service by improving understanding and responsiveness that in turn reduces customer churn and creates customer loyalty (Bohling et al, 2006).

            The companies which have had a successful implementation of CRM applications in their marketing approaches have realized various benefits.  A number of them have been able to synchronize their customer service in line with customer needs. The CRM has enabled companies develop customer tracking and need analysis systems, which led to improvement of service provision (MacFarlane, 2006). Moreover, the tool has created an interface that enables customers share their views on how they can be served in the best way because of the enhanced communication channels.  The business operational costs such as advertising and selling costs are reduced, leading to increase in revenues.

            CRM also allows customer profiling thus enabling the company to customize its service provision and come up with products that meet preference and taste thresholds of customers.  The company is also able to establish new avenues of increasing revenues through cross selling (Alt and Puschmann, 2004).

Basically,instant market research are enabled by the customer relationship management as well as opening the communications lines through which the customers provide a company with direct -constant market response to its performance, services, and the various products are far much better compared to any survey market. Good Customer relationship management effective and necessary for the growth of business: the company stays longer with its customers, churn rates of the customers decrease, referrals to latest customers rise from growing numbers of contented clients, demand goes down on trouble shooting and



fire fighting staff and in general the firm's services flows as teams continue to work more professionally and more cheerfully.

3.1 The Management role in Implementing Customer Relationship Manager (CRM) Strategies

            The CRM as a whole is a bit complex venture   but when worked out well brings a new revolution to the company or organization. To ensure its successful implementation, the management within the implementing company plays a very important role in developing effective communication plans and strategies, knowing the main business needs for the company, identifying the right soft ware. If done efficiently and in the right way CRM brings good returns to the company (Peel, 2002).

            In the current environment, creating a link with the market is vital and has revolutionized completely the strategies of firms marketing to more other relational approaches. The enabling of CRM management by Information Technology has brought efficiency in business strategy involving establishment and coming up with relationship with clients who are valuable, with the intention of maintaining loyalty of clientele.

            A good manager is the one who ensures that the implemented system of Customer Relationship Management is reliable, accessible, responsive, safe, courteous, and communicative, puts all necessary factors into consideration, competent and recognizes the customer.

            The management in any given company plays a major role in digging out on the CRM subject and to ensure that it plays the role of retaining customers who already exist by developing relationships which are long lasting and that are key in


meeting the customers’ needs and satisfaction to the fullest. Additionally, the management needs to find new ways of attracting new customers and to ensure that long term relationships are developed maintained. It is important that the knowhow of the management and CRM system up grading to not only be the ability of the organization to interact but to also attract and construct  one on one link with customers. This could also be done by organizing on how they can familiarize themselves with the customers as a company or organization (Peel, 2002).

      Another important role of the management is to provide a conducive environment for the organization to get knowledge and innovation which is   mostly vital in high velocity surrounding with high competition. It must ensure skills management so that the organization’s dreams and goals are achieved by the motivation driven by strategy, and facilitation of skills to workers, to enhance use of their capability and development to interpret data and information using information sources available, skills, personality, experience, feelings and culture by the process of giving information and data.

      The analysis and creation of frame work of the events and knowledge moving within the organization depends with a manager’s ability and creativity. The manager has to know how to manage the customer’s skills and serve them much better, because he has to realize that they are what make the multinational companies get to their status. This therefore meansthat the buyer is the back bone of the business.

             In ensuring that the implementation of CRM creates a competitive advantage,  managers need to ensure that it the implementation process sets out to achieve the set out objectives  and that it is effectively planned for and implemented. The staff members should be equipped with all necessary skills to ensure that they



can effectively understand the CRM system and to understand their various roles and responsibilities in promoting implementation success.

       It is also important that strategies in collecting information from the customers in the context of relationships and giving the customers a sterling value of their money as per the quality of the end product or services be put in place.  The collected information in this case is not just first hand but also correct and accurate (Treacy and Wiersema, 1995).

            Identification of hitches in customer link cycle and are likely to cause a blow to the loyalty of the brand and that have a negative impact on customer satisfaction is also another important role of managers during CRM implementation. Such hitches and negative impact are likely to gag the lay down plan of efficient communication strategy. The communication strategy is important in gaining competitive advantage as it helps in meeting the customer’s apprehensions, queries and satisfaction levels. As a key point the manager has to ensure is done in a professional way. 

    It is important that the management of any given company implementing CRM ensure that they shun their organization from being product focused to being customer focuses. This will help in ensuring that they prioritize on quality service delivery to he customers and on promoting customer satisfaction and retention.

 Another role of the of the manager is coming up with strategies in communication plan that are in line with organization keeping in mind the customer -centric structure rather than the product centric one (Blumberg, 2002).

        Choosing the right technology platform and looking at the cost of implementing it which include procuring of software setting and trainings activities is another key


role of the management.  This will help in ensuring that the best choices and decisions are made and that the selected technology platform is feasible for the company. To allow for effectiveness in such decision making processes, the management should have sufficient knowledge and relevant skills about the various CRM technologies. Assessing the ROI (Return on Investing) and checking CRM implementation and the investment is another key role that managers need to execute.

            The manager must also ensure that employees are involved in the entire implementation process and that they are allowed to actively participate in all the processes involved. This will be important in making sure that they fully familiar with the system help them understand more about it and also reduce resistance toward the system. The manager has to inform people in the organization about CRM initiatives through policies, directives or even training. This will make the team he is working with be aware of what the executive level expects hence promoting a good understanding and customer response.  Employee participation during implementation is a key to attaining success in the process. Other than this, the manager   needs to involve other   key people in the project to avoid CRM project failure as they are the ones to engrain CRM usage in the organizational culture.  The key sponsors should be allowed and offered a conducive environment, to make time and financial commitments to ensure success involving potential users and even customers, to verify what they expect (Blumberg, 2002).

            Assessment, monitoring and evaluation of the CRM implementation process and outcome make another important role of the management. It is important that managers measure and keep watch of how the CRM initiatives are felt and of the activeness of vital personnel in initiation of the CRM. They also need to keep track of


the level of customer satisfaction, profitability improvement and customer retention levels with the CRM initiative.

               To ensure complete success, the management should overcome organizational, administrative and political hindrances; this in most cases will affect the out put of the company and ultimate sales service and support as a result of destabilization.

3.2 Impact of in Adequacy of CRM on Success of Companies

             CRM being an application of one to one relationship-marketing, reacting to a customer in the point of whatever the buyer him or herself says, allows for a greater understanding of the customers’ needs and ensures customer satisfaction (Peppers, Rogers, and Dorf 2000).It Provides a bridge which links Information technology and strategies in marketing which aim at building long term relationship and profitability. When the CRM and its process of implementation are inadequate, then the set objectives for the company are not going to be achieved and a number of failures can be identified in various areas within the company. This part of this paper discusses the various impacts that inadequacy in implementation of CRM will have on any given company.

3.2.1 Effects on customers

  1. Loyalty

            Loyalty of customers to a company is a fundamental factor because it allows the company put more of its energy on things to do with business matters (Gefen, 2002, Rowley &Dawes, 2000). Without customer loyalty then success in the company’s undertaking sales and profitability is likely not to be achieved. Disloyalty among customers can be demonstrated by customers’ reduction in purchase,


reduced frequency of making purchases or complete withdrawal of the customers from the business.           

Loyalty in this paper is a vital element of effective CRM hence if the implemented CRM is inadequate, then loyalty is reduced, an aspect that has serious repercussions of the profitability of the business and that will hinder the business from attaining its set targets. This can be in terms of   loyalty to a brand, store loyalty, sales person loyalty, and product or service loyalty. Blumberg (2002) notes that strengthening Web site Characteristics to  the existing CRM increases business, by organizing ways of organizations knowledge and understanding customers’ expectations partnering or building relationships with customers ,empowering them and interacting with them. The key role of CRM entails to uphold loyalty among customers (Evans&Laskin, 2001), when this is not looked at most definitely the customer will be discouraged and quit leading to huge losses on the company. This therefore means that CRM must stay focused on enhancing this factor by being adequate.

  1. Retention

            Customer retention is a powerful weapon in CRM. It’s important for companies to retain already existing customers because it will cost the company a lot of money to acquire new customers as compared with the cost of maintaining the already existing customers (Dwyer, et al. 2007). When the implementation of CRM is inadequate then companies will not be able to retain their already existing customers.

             For many firms, the cost of loosing the most profitable customers has been strewed in such away that it has a serious effect on customer’s profitability. For instance in banks the top 30 percent customers ranked by profitability are likely to


make 1-50 percent of entire total profit of the customer’s profitability. Retention of customers will allow the company to collect customers data and this will be used in to understanding the market, communicate with customers as well as to organize future interaction with customers.

             Retention is an expensive but crucial and profitable venture and so CRM has to do everything possible to ensure that this as one of its main targets is achieved. This as an important tool in a company has the power to change short and long term strategies and goals. Customer retention is important for the company’s future. Inadequacy of CRM in relation to this factor will seriously hinder the success of the company. Without tailored products with the consumer in mind the costumers will start   moving away to look for companies which have their welfare at heart (Dwyer, et al. 2007).         

3.2.2 Effects on the Management

            The management has a huge role to play in identifying and understanding the need and importance of customers and making them feel comfortable and appreciated. To effectively conduct these roles, the management should have knowledge theories pertaining to the customer relationship. There should also be a long plan, appropriate commitment and organizational investment. Poor CRM management and inadequacy go hand in hand hence if this occurs, then the needs of the customers will not be identified and met as required. Inadequacy in CRM hinders the creation of a good business to business marketing structure (with buying influences which varies) with which the management has a big duty to undertake in making possible. With inadequacy comes bad management and vice versa. The management is responsible for ensuring that a company establishes a company and customer relationship that is based on mutual benefits.


            When CRM is inadequate, it becomes difficult for the management to measure that customer’s level of satisfaction as the correct measurements cannot be identified.

 Poor management and inadequacy in CRM will cause lapses to this hence leading to loss of customers. Inadequate CRM also means that the management will not be able to pin point customer service requirements and hence will not be able to meet them accordingly further leading to loss (Zeithaml, 2002).

3.3.3 Effects on Marketing

            Customer Relationship Management is a major marketing strategy for many companies. One key role that CRM must play is make sure there is a relationship between marketers and customers and which is based on the loyalty programs which can be formulated. In doing this, there should be willingness of the marketer to invest on infrastructures which could include web based soft or hardware that harness effectively the advantages of CRM and that bring the need for customers to continue having a relationship with the company. When the outcome or end product gives satisfaction to the customer, then the customers loyalty last longer, they buy more, talk favourably about the company and becomes sensitive with the price (Payne and Ballantyne, 2002). 

            When the implementation of CRM is inadequate, then it will not be able to effectively play its role in marketing. Inadequacy therefore means that the company will run at a loss because the advertisement and new customer’s having knowledge of the company will not be there, the already existing customers will talk ill about the company and in turn the company will be on its way to collapsing. Further, without proper CRM the companies leverage marketing knowledge will not be under stood hence the company will start experiencing losses (Treacy and Wiersema, 2005).


            Other effects that inadequate CRM will have on companies according to Kristin and Kerr (2002) are as listed below:

  • There will be lack of realignment in bringing together or removing of weak sales distribution routes.
  • A general reduction in the level of profits for the company
  • Loss of intelligence data over consistent integration separating organizations and customers needs and requirements.
  • CRM   will not able to speedily find out and adjust   to the latest customer service requirements and needs.
  • There will be no mediation between marketing orientation effects and CRM performance
  • Without laid down CRM strategies the running of the company or organization    will be without focus and goal.
  • A failure in CRM will lead to no utilization of technology as a tool to get, review and disseminate current customer prospects, develop deeper data and focused relationships and to identify and meet customer’s needs.
  • There will be no organized market orientation where generation wide orientation is disseminated to the market and characterized by information sharing across departments.
  • There will be no early detection and reinstating a problem experienced in the market in time.

3.4 Customer Relationship Management at Tech Mahindra

            Tech Mahindra has been a company whose growth has been impeccable and that has been highly been promoted by their delivery of quality services and goods to their clients. As a company willing to exceptionally succeed in the current competitive


business world, Tech Mahindra has developed a number of strategies through which they intend to gain competitive advantage and to always maintain a top position. As a service provider the company is highly concerned the various ways through which they can combat their competitors’ enticing propositions and pricing which in turn entice away the clients. Other than this, they recognize the need to take control of the reduction in the level of service and network as well as customer dissatisfaction or negative experiences as away of preventing customer loss as the acquisition of new clientele is highly expensive as compared to maintaining the already existing ones.

            Tech Mahindra strongly believes that operational and marketing functions of service providers are strongly influenced various factors such as loyalty programs, churn management and the prevention of bill shocks. This has in turn resulted into the development of strategies to allow for the promotion of quality service delivery and interaction with customers. This has promoted the implementation of techniques of ensuring effective management of the company’s relationships with its customers. One such technique is Customer Experience Enhancement Engine (CE3). This is easy to implement in addition to the available Information Technology group of service- providers (Tech Mahindra, 2011).

3.4.1 Customer Experience Enhancement Engine

            Through the planning and effective implementation of this strategy, Tech Mahindra has been able to come up with solutions related to the planning and implementation of campaigns based on the various inputs from customer segmentation and churn management. The strategy acts as a solution as an effective approach through which service providers are able to not only maintain their existing clients but also ensure that there is growth in the lifetime value of these


clients. This serves as a foundation to their strategy of doing business. It allows for the service providers to always lead before their competitors and to rapidly come up with new and quality services as well as programs to promote effective retention management through a number of features. These features can also be regarded as being essential in the promotion of customer satisfaction which is a major element during the attainment of a competitive advantage, increasing company sales and in turn increasing profitability and level of productivity for the company. One such feature is improved client experience and retention. Through CE3 a spontaneous loyalty experience has been created among the end users through the provision of direct- rewards or by creating a chance where en users get to collect and accumulate points which can then be redeemed to acquire other valuable services of their will and which match up the accumulated points.

            Another essential feature is the bill shock- prevention  whereby the engine performs real time data accumulation in various dimensions in relation to measurement units, cost, count and real time rating, data services and mobile voice policy and charging management inclusive of on demand provisions like mobile television and mobile broadband.CE3 promotes the immediate and auto alerts delivery through emails and Short Message Service (SMS) when the limits put across by the subscriber or regulation body are attained. Any other network traffic is blocked at this point. 

            Micro segmentation on the basis of profile history or usage is another essential feature of CE3 whereby the flexible and versatile segmentation engine of the subscriber makes it possible for users to collect client profiling data which is to be used for targeted campaigns in future.



            Another feature is the quadruple- play loyalty which is mainly centralized such that the presented business data structures, which are independent, are capable of connecting to any amount of service- platforms with an aim of designing consolidated post paid, prepaid, triple as well as quadruple scenarios of play loyalty throughout the chain of value.

            CE3 also presents another feature described as a fast and flexible loyalty campaigns roll out. According to this feature the engine launch aimed at creating new marketing campaigns to be effective within just a few numbers of hours and in turn reducing the total amount of time taken to market. Through this, users are effectively able to launch promotional tests, assess the results as well as manage the various stages of promotions in progress.

            The seamless integration of the Customer Experience Enhancement Engine with the already existing Business Support Systems (BSS) and Operations System Support (OSS) is another of its essential feature whereby platforms with high performance levels are created to handle millions and millions of different network transactions within a telecom environment that is readily and highly available. It allows for the seamless integration with the current internal network, billing as well as Customer Relationship Management platforms without necessarily having to alter or out phase any given systems.

            Customer Experience Enhancement Engine as solution has been created and implemented in accordance with the Bill Shock Prevention Regulation number 544/2009. This can be changed to allow for the creation of new regulations to conform to the newly set regulatory guidelines.  The solution by Tech Mahindra aims at empowering Telecom Operators Tech Mahindra’s Campaign Management solution empowers Telecom Operators to micro segment the market to subscriber


groups or individual subscribers, promote the retention of subscribers with the operator and raise the use of the network, develop new ways of increasing operator revenue as well as promoting customer loyalty to help in gaining competitive advantage.  The system also assists business users through the provision of promotion- prediction analysis, an all round view of the subscribers, dynamic promotion in terms of campaigns and how the subscribers react to the campaigns, assessment of customer experience points, commission or bonus calculations as well as real-time collection in dimensions such as recharge, usage or adjustment in terms of cost, counts and measurement units (Tech Mahindra, 2011).



3.1 Introduction

            This chapter presents a discussion of the methodology used in this research, which attempts to evaluate and explain the effects of inadequate customer relationship management in Tech Mahindra. This methodological chapter includes the following elements:, selection of Tech Mahindra as the study area and population, hypotheses, research design, sample and population, instrumentation, data collection procedures, statistical analysis, ethical considerations and limitation of the study.

            According to Febelmar, (2009), the techniques that may be utilized in conducting a research project in a given subject, differ, depending on the approach taken; qualitative approach or quantitative. The duration of research is also important in determining what tools of research can be utilized, in order to get the appropriate outcomes that meet the intended objectives. This can either be short term or long run.

3.2 Research design

            The study is descriptive in nature seeking to investigate the effects of inadequate Customer Relationship Management at Tech Mahindra. The study will employ both qualitative and quantitative designs. The combination of the techniques will assist in getting an in depth understanding the various underlying conditions which have contributed to the implementation shortcomings. Face to face interviews will be used. Numbers and percentages of the responses from the respondents will be calculated and presented in tables for easy comparison. Qualitatively an interview guide will be constructed for the key informant. Questionnaires will also be provided to five customers of the company.



3.3 Sample Framework

3.3.1 Sample size and technique.

            A total of six respondents will be used for the study. The research seeks to investigate the effects of inadequate Customer Relationship Management at Tech Mahindra with focus being on the role the management has played in the implementation process. In identifying the success of a completed CRM project, assessing on the customer’s satisfaction level is very important,. Customers form a very important part of the CRM system hence the sample selected must therefore be representative of them. The sample will include five customers of Tech Mahindra who have been continuously transacting with the company for the past five years and one manager of the company. Random sampling will be used to randomly select the respondents.

3.3.2 Sample procedure

            Qualitative technique will be used to get views from the respondents and also to gather information on effects of inadequate Customer Relationship Management at Tech Mahindra. Quantitative sampling will be used to come up with the number of respondents who participated in the study. 

3.4 Data Collection

            The selections of study participants will logically lead to gathering of data pertinent to the study subject. The researcher will employ the use of face to face interviews to obtain the various views. The use of face to face interviews will be efficient in getting to seek clarification of any unclear information that the respondent may have given. It also ensures that all needed information is acquired as the interviewer is in control and has the ability to ask the questions in a way that he or she believes will get response. Questionnaires will also be provided to the five


selected customers of Tech Mahindra. The questionnaires will be self administered as the respondents are considered literate and thus able to fill. The questionnaires are well prepared, simple to hear, and easy to understand. Secondly, questionnaires do not use leading or value-laden works to avoid internal bias. The interview will be carried out in such a way that a high level of professionalism is maintained and with no partiality whatsoever.

3.4.1 Sources of Data

            This study used both primary and secondary data.

  1. Primary data will be collected using face to face interviews and questionnaires.
  2. Secondary data will be collected through document analysis in the form of Reports, books, manuals, news papers, and journals and the internet which will be read and the required data collected from them.

These will be effective in ensuring that data errors are reduced.

3.4.2 Primary and secondary researches

            Primary researches involve collection of information from the scratch and it entails a lot of work in billing the information.  It is the first hand research which provides the researcher with the first hand information which is more realistic. Primary researches employ methods such as focus groups, personal interviews, questionnaires, observations and surveys. Nonetheless, a lot of effort is needed for successful results.

            Secondary researches on the other hand are based on already collected materials or information. This can be found in books, journals, archived as well as internet sources and periodicals. The already available sources of information cut down on time and cost related challenges. However, for best outcomes, reliability and authenticity of the sources must be established.


3.5 Data recording

            The collected information shall be recorded audio tapes, information sheets and write ups for further referencing in the subsequent stages of the project.

3.6 Target group

            These are participants or recipients that aid in data collection process. To get the information concerning Tech Mahindra, the research will engage the customer relations manager and five randomly elected clients.

3.7 Research analysis

            The analysis of the findings will be done by using tools such as graphs, bars, pie charts for quantitative data. The qualitative data will be analyzed through comparative analysis of the actual data information collected with standard results of the CRM applications or anticipated outcomes that were set before the roll out of the research.

3.7.1 Resources used for the research analysis

            Research analysis involving a large amount data will require utilization of computer aided tools such as excel spread sheets, inferences and  measures of central tendency such as mean, median.

3.8 Limitations of the Research Study

            The research study collected data from one single respondent and only a small number of the customers an aspect that is capable of affecting obtained findings. It would have been more appropriate if another alternative choice of respondents would have been used for the data collection like for example, if several employees across the lower, top and middle levels of management were used. This alternative was however not used as a result of limitations in time and cost.


The research study was however carried out with utmost care as a way of ensuring that all the responses given and data collected was representative.

Another major limitation to this study was lack of sufficient time to carry out the research and deal with other essential activities. Financial constraint was another likely limitation, though I was able to work within the laid out budget.

3.9 Ethical Considerations

            Ethical consideration is a very important domain that has to be kept into mind especially when carrying out a research. To start with, it is important for one to get approval letters that will enable him or her to carry out the research. It is for this reason that I therefore first of all got a letter of clearance from the university so that I can have a go ahead in carrying out my research. In addition, I also had to acquire a gate pass letter from the administrators within the area under study. In this case, I obtained a letter from the relevant authorities permitting me to carry out my research.

            Before collecting information using the questionnaire, I ensured that I obtained the informed consent of the respondents. In this case, I explicitly introduced myself by saying who I was and giving details of the purpose of my research. I also explained to the respondents on why I needed information from him. I then requested the respondents to allow me to proceed by asking them a few questions. I also informed the respondents of his right to withdraw from the research if he or she felt the need to do so.

            Privacy and confidentiality of all information collected from the respondents is important. It is also necessary that the respondents remain anonymous during the entire research process. This research was conducted in such a way that it ensured that all information remained private and confidential. I also ensured that the information given is solely for research and will not be provided to any other person.


I also explained the essence of privacy and confidentiality as a value of research. After the entire research process is complete and validated, the questionnaires will be burned since they will have ceased to function. An agreement in writing between the respondents and I was prepared to confirm this.



4.1. Introduction

            This chapter contains the presentation and discussion of research findings/results and data analysis. It presents data that was collected using questionnaires and interviews. In the same chapter, data is interpreted, discussed and analyzed along the themes namely;analyzing the causes of CRM inadequacies in the company, exploring the management role in implementing CRM strategies, assessing the CRM implementation approaches, investigating the effect that inadequate CRMhas caused to the success of Tech Mahindra and analyzing the importance of CRM.

4.2 Socio-demographics

            One respondent was the manager at the customer relations department at Tech Mahindra while the other three were the company’s customers.

Table 4.1 Duration that the respondents have had association with the company (Tech     Mahindra) the organization




0 -1 year



2 -3 years 



Over 3 years






Source: primary data



Majority of the respondents (67%) have had association with the company for over 3 years. This is inclusive of the manager. Two respondents (33%) have been in association with the company for period of between 2 to 3 years. This means that the respondents had all the appropriate information needed.

4.3 Causes of CRM inadequacies at Tech Mahindra

            According to the information obtained from the respondents, a number of reasons can be termed to as being the cause of the various inadequacies in CRM at Tech Mahindra. These include:

            Lack of cooperation from the senior managers during the implementation process. This mainly resulted into delays in decision making processes which further caused delays in the implementation. At times the required resources such as funds and required soft wares could not be approved and delivered on time.

            Another major cause as identified by the respondents was lack of effective strategies of implementation. This was mainly due to lack of sufficient knowledge and skills on the implementation process.

            Poor identification of the various loopholes during implementation was another reason for the inadequacy. In this case, not being able to correctly identify the existing challenges meant that correct solutions and control measures could no be put in place meaning that the problems or challenges would not be addressed hence CRM failure.

            Poor planning was another identified cause of CRM inadequacy. An evident area where poor planning was evident was in the area of funds whereby, the management over budgeted for the project, purchased very expensive software that



would have otherwise be complimented using cheaper alternatives and took so much time to complete the process. This therefore led to wastage of funds.

            As identified by the respondents, not all stakeholders were allowed to take part into the implementation of CRM within the company a reason for the various inadequacies. Participation from all involved stakeholders is an important way of putting resources together, ensuring that everyone fully understands the entire process and that he or she gets o make contributions into the process of implementation in terms of ideas, opinions, resources, skills and knowledge. Active participation also creates a feeling of belonging for the stakeholders who feel that they are part and parcel of the entire project process.

4.4 Management role in implementing CRM strategies

            The management was identified as those who play key roles in the implementation of CRM strategies and especially in the area of decision making. It is through proper management that all requirements necessary for the complete CRM implementation are put together.

            Another role of the management as identified by the respondents is monitoring and evaluation which is important in identifying if the implementation process is progressing as planned, identifying the various gaps in the process and putting up control measures to fill this gaps and to solve identified problems. This ensures that the system meets the objectives it was set to achieve. Evaluation helps in identifying the impacts that the system has on the company and if it met the set goals and objectives.

            It is also the responsibility of the management to ensure that staff members acquire all the necessary skills and knowledge required to effectively understand and work with the CRM system. This can be done by organizing training sessions for the


staff members as well as involving them in the entire process of planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating CRM.

4.5 CRM implementation approaches

            According to the manager, the approach taken by the company in implementing Customer Relationship Management is one that which aimed at ensuring that all the set out goals and objectives for the implementation were achieved and that all staff members were well familiar with eth system. It is therefore through that every member of staff was involved in the entire planning and implementation process and was also given adequate training on the use of the system to enhance its effectiveness.

4.6 Impact of inadequate Customer Relationship Management has caused to the success of Tech Mahindra

From the responses given by the respondents, the implementation of CRM at Tech Mahindra only recorded a few inadequacies or failures. These inadequacies have however impacted on the company in a number of ways. One such way is as a result of the high costs of implementation that mainly resulted from poor planning. High costs meant that the company had to use a huge Amount of its money, meant to run other processes for the implementation. The company is at the moment still trying to recover from the huge deficit of funds with strategies being put in place to find money to deal with the various projects that are yet to be completed as the money meant to complete them was diverted into the CRM project.

            Inadequacy of CRM has also resulted into lowered levels of profitability for the company as the levels of production has reduced due to insufficient funds to cater for a production equal to that produced before the implementation. Cutting down its


production has meant reducing their level of supplies and in turn reduced the output levels for the company thus low profit levels.

4.7 Analyzing the importance of CRM.

            From the collected findings, the implementation of CRM has had a lot of benefits not just on the customers but on the staff members as well. One major benefit recorded by the staff members is the reduction in workload as everything is automated and information can be retrieved with ease. The enhanced link between the business and the customers is one that has brought in major benefits for both the company and the clients. Through CRM, the company has been able to improve its quality of service delivery as brought out by the customer respondents. According to the customer respondents the quality of service delivery before CRM implementation at Tech Mahindra was average. While 40% of the customers feel that the quality of services is now (after CRM implementation) excellent, 60% felt that it is good meaning that the quality has improved. This is as indicated in the table below:










Table 4.7 a:Response on the quality of services and product delivery at Tech Mahindra before they implemented CRM

Response(Rate of Quality)


















Source: primary data

Figure 4.7 a: Chart to show theresponse on the quality of services and product delivery at Tech Mahindra before they implemented CRM




Table 4.7 b:Response on the quality of services and product delivery at Tech Mahindra after they implemented CRM

Response(Rate of Quality)


















Source: primary data

This has been presented in the graph below:

Figure 4.7 b. Graph to show response on the quality of services and product delivery at Tech Mahindra after they implemented CRM



            All the respondents indicated to have positively been affected by the implementation in one way or another. The benefits were however mostly felt in the quality of service delivery and in the ability to effectively communicate with the company.

Table 4.7c: Response on whether CRM implementation had any positive effects on the customers













Source: primary data

            Through CRM the company can now be able to effectively identify and understand all the different needs of the customers and in turn respond to them. This means that the company is now in a position of producing products that best meet the tastes and preferences of their different clients.

Other impacts of CRM at Tech Mahindra as brought out by the findings include increased customer satisfaction, increased customer loyalty and retention. The respondents also indicated that they had introduced some of their friends into the company hence bringing in new customers and broadening the customer base.



5.1. Introduction

            The chapter is a presentation of major summary findings, conclusions and recommendations for future interventions as per the study.

5.2 Summary of major Findings

            The study covered six respondents; five customers of Tech Mahindra and 1 manager for the company who represented the staff members and this are some of the major findings.

5.2.1Causes of CRM inadequacies at Tech Mahindra

            From the obtained findings, CRM inadequacies at Tech Mahindra were due to poor coordination between the senior management and their juniors such that the senior managers were said to be uncooperative, poor planning and implementation strategies due to lack of sufficient knowledge and skills,poor identification of gaps or problems in the implementation process and failure to involve all major stakeholders of the company.

            According to the findings, if these causes had not been present during the entire planning and implementation of CRM, then the process would have been a complete success meaning that it would have achieved all the set goals and objectives that it was meant to attain.






5.2.2 Management role in implementing CRM strategies

            The above findings indicate a number of roles that the management should play in the complete implementation of Customer Relationship Management. The identified roles include mainly those related to decision making, procurement of all resources necessary for the full implementation process.

            Other identified roles include: monitoring and evaluation to assess the progress and outcome of the project as well as ensuring that members of staff are well trained and have all the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively deal with the implemented system.

5.2.3 CRM implementation approaches

            The used approach as indicated by the customer relations manager for the implementation of CRM entailed the involvement of all members of staff into the entire process of planning for and implementation CRM into the company. This was to ensure that they effectively understood the system as well as to reduce resistance. The approach was also to create a sense of belonging for the employees.

5.2.4 Impact inadequate Customer Relationship Management has caused to the success of Tech Mahindra

            The main inadequacy of CRM implementation at Tech Mahindra as recorded above is as a result of poor planning and budgeting that resulted into the company overspending on the process. It as a result of the high implementation costs for example that the company suffered huge deficits in funds which it is still trying to recover. These deficits have led to a decline in the production levels, delay in the



completion of other projects that were ongoing, reduced supplies to the increasing customers and hence reduced profit levels.

5.2.5 Analyzing the importance of CRM.

            The findings above indicate benefits to the Tech Mahindra Company generally, staff member and also to the customers. The benefits indicate the importance that CRM has had on the company, its staff members and clients. Generally, CRM has strengthened the association between the clients and the business. To the staff members CRM has eased the work load, made it easy and effective for them to access any necessary information about the clients. The company has also been able to easily identify and understand the very needs of the clients and hence are able to produce products that match their specific preferences.

            Customers indicated to have reaped benefits through improved service and products delivery and also effective and direct communication channels that allow them to raise their views and ideas directly to the company and from any region.

5.3 Conclusion

            From the obtained findings, the implementation of CRM at Tech Mahindra can be seen as a wise move that will result into enormous benefits for the company. Despite the few inadequacies, CRM will be important in promoting closer and stronger relationship between the company and its clinets.CRM at the company will not only be important for the company but even to the clients and other stakeholders too.The different views raised by this study indicate the benefits of CRM to be more than the negative effects.




            Findings above indicate that the management has a huge role to play in ensuring that the CRM implementation in any company is important and essential especially when it comes to making good decisions. Lack of cooperation from the management especially those at the senior level results into failure of the projects. This is especially due to bureaucracy and delays in making decisions, approving various ideas, resources and funds.

5.4 Recommendations

            From the findings, it is evident that inadequacies in CRM can be prevented from occurring. The successful implementation and sustenance of CRM is attainable but if a number of issues are ensured. One such issue is the need for the senior management to be actively and willingly involved in the process of planning and implementation such that they effectively know and understand the importance of the project, the various requirements needed and the benefits that its implementation will have on the company. Though their cooperation, decisions will be made very fast, resources required for the implementation approved and procured and any other raising issues addressed as soon as they occur.

            It is also important that the management identifies the important roles they play in promoting success in the implementation and effective functioning of CRM. By identifying what they need to do, then the managers will be well prepared for the task ahead by acquiring all the required knowledge and skills, ensuring that the staff members are well trained on the system  as well as on making sure that they effectively monitor and evaluate the project as it progresses and after completion. This will be important in identifying any rising problems or gaps during implementation and in turn coming up with corrective measures to deal with the problems.


            It is also important for all stakeholders to be involved in the planning and implementation process of CRM. This will help in putting resources together, ensuring that everyone fully understands the entire process and that he or she gets to make contributions into the process of implementation in terms of ideas, opinions, resources, skills and knowledge. Active participation also creates a feeling of belonging for the stakeholders who feel that they are part and parcel of the entire project process.

            For the effective functioning of the implemented CRM at Tech Mahindra to be effective, it is important that the various gaps and problems in the project be identified and corrective measures be put in place. The company should also develop strategies through which they become capable of successfully dealing with the impacts of the CRM inadequacies. In dealing with the deficits in funds for example, the company could rather than reducing the levels of production, the company can for example reduce the incomes for the workers for a short duration until the deficit is recovered. This will however require that they discus this with the staff members and make them understand the need to do so. The company could promise an increase in pay after the deficit is recovered. The amount promised can be higher than the initial one as the profit levels will have highly increased from the CRM. The management at each level must be actively and fully take part in the identification, planning and implementation of these strategies.



            Undertaking this project has resulted into an intense growth in my personal skills for research. Before undertaking my research skills were just basic and the level of knowledge was very narrow. This has however changed through the various experiences that i have had while undertaking this research.

            In order to ensure that this project is done with the highest quality of standards, i first had to make sure that I gain all necessary knowledge and skills required to carry out a research study. This was done through extensive reading of different research related materials as well as by studying and analysing already done research studies. Through this I was able to gain a clearer understanding on research methodologies and techniques, various ethics that should guide a research study as well as on ensuring that all methods, instruments and techniques used for selecting the sample, collecting and analysing the data are those that produce valid and reliable results.

            Other than gaining more knowledge and skills in research, this paper has also increased my knowledge and understanding on Customer Relationship Management and the role it plays for businesses. My knowledge on this topic is now greater and all rounded unlike before when I only knew a few things about it.

            Generally, undertaking the research study has been a great leaning experience for me and I believe that I am better in knowledge and skills related to research and Customer Relationship Management than I was before carrying out the study.


Adelaar, T. (2000). Electronic commerce and the implications for market structure: The   example of the art and antiques trade. Journal of Computer-Mediated             Communication, 5   (3). Retrieved 27 April,  2011 from

Aldlaigan, A., and Buttle, F. (2005). "Beyond satisfaction: customer attachment to retail banks". International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23 (4): 349-359.

Ali, A.  and Alshawi, S. (2003). "Investigating the Impact of Cross-culture on CRM           Implementation: A Comparative Study". Accessed at

Alt, R. and Puschmann, T. (2004).Successful Practices in Customer Relationship             Management.Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Science.

Arussy, L.  (2005). Understanding the Fatal Mistakes: Passionate and Profitable. John    Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Baumann, C., Burton, S., and Elliot, G. (2005). “Determinants of customer loyalty and     share of wallet in retail banking”, Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 9 (3):           231-248.

Blattberg, R.  and Deighton, J. (2001). “Interactive marketing: exploring the age of            addressability”. Sloan Management Review, 33 (1): 5-14.

 Blumberg, D. (2002). The Crm/E-Business Paradigm. NJ: Blumberg Associates, Inc. Bohling, T., Bowman, D., LaValle, S., Ramani, G. et al. (2005). “A Customer        Relationship             Management Roadmap: What Is Known, Potential Pitfalls, and         Where to Go”. Journal of Marketing, 69: 155-166.


Chalmeta, R. (2006). “Methodology for customer relationship management”. The             Journal of Systems and Software, 79: 1015-1024

Chen, J. and Popovich, K. (2003). “Understanding customer relationship management (CRM) People, process and technology”. Business Process Management     Journal, 9(5): 672-688        

Darrellm, K. and Ledingham, D. (2004) CRM Done Right. London: Harvard Business     Review.

Das, K. (2004). h-CRM: The key to lifelong business relationships. New Delhi: Viva          Books.

Day, G. (2001). "A two-dimensional concept of brand loyalty". Journal of Advertising        Research, 9 (3): 29-35.

Dick, A., and Basu, K. (2004). "Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual          framework".             Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22 (2):99-113.

Dwyer, F., Schurr, P., and Oh, S. (2007) Developing buyer-seller relationships. The        Journal of Marketing, 51: 11–27.

Dyche´, J. (2002).  The CRM Handbook: A Business Guide to Customer Relationship      Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley.

Evans, R., and Laskin, L. (2001). “The Relationship Marketing Process: A Conceptualization and Application”, Industrial Marketing Management, 23:439–452.

Febelmar, C. (2009). Which techniques are used in market research?  Belgian      Federation of Market Research Institutes

Frederick, N. (2003). Why CRM Doesn’t Work: How to Win by Letting Customers   Manage the             Relationship. NJ: Princeton, Bloomberg Press. 

Gefen, D. (2002) “Customer Loyalty in e-Commerce,” Journal of the Association for        Information Systems,        3(1):27-51.


Goodhue, D.L., Wixom B.H and Watson H.J, 2002, “Realizing business benefits through          CRM:             Hitting the right target in the right way”. MIS Quarterly Executive1(2): 79-    94

Goodhue, D.L., Wixom B.H and Watson H.J, 2002, “Realizing business benefits throughKale, H. (2004). “CRM failure and the seven deadly sins”. Marketing Management, 13(5): 42-46

Hummel, E., G. Slowinski, S. Matthews, and E. Gilmont. (2010). Business models for      collaborative research. Research Technology Management 53 (6) 51-54.

Kale, H. (2004). “CRM failure and the seven deadly sins”. Marketing Management,          13(5): 42-46

King, F. & Burgees, F. (2007). "Understanding success and failure in customer   relationship             management". Industrial Marketing Management, doi:             10.1016/j.indmarman.2011.03.19

Knox, S., Maklan, S., Payne, A., Peppard, J., and Ryals, L. (2003). Customer         relationship             management: Perspectives from the marketplace. Burlington, MA:   Butterworth-  Heinemann.

Kristin, A. and Kerr, C. (2002). Customer Relationship Management. New York:    McGraw Hill.

Lindgreen, A. (2004). "The design, implementation and monitoring of a CRM        programme: A case study". Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 22(2): 160-186.

MacFarlane, M. (2011).The Importance of CRM Integration in Marketing Automation.       Market Automation Software guide.

McCalla, R., Ezingeard, R. and Money, R. ( 2003). “A Behavioural Approach to CRM      Systems Evaluation”. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation    Volume, 6(2): 145-154



Mendoza, E., Marius, A.,Perez, M. and  Griman, C. (2007). "Critical success factors for    a customer strategy". Information Software Technology, 49: 913-945

Nevin, J. (2005). “Relationship marketing and distribution channels: Exploring     fundamental             issues”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Fall: 327-      334.

Nguyen T H, Sherif J S, and Newby M, 2007. “Strategies for successful CRM       implementation”. Information Management & Computer Society, 15: 102-115

Parvatiyar, A., and Sheth, J.  (2001). “Conceptual freamework of customer relationship management”, In Sheth, J., Parvatiyar, A. and Shainesh, G.  (Eds.), Customer relationshipmanagement: Emerging concepts, tools and applications . New    Delhi: Tata McGraw- Hill.

Payne, A. and Frow, P. (2004) The role of multichannel integration in Customer Relationship             Management. Industrial Marketing Management, 33: 527-538

Payne, M and Ballantyne, D. (2002). Relationship Marketing: Creating Stakeholder         Value . Chartered Institute of Marketing : A Butterworth-Heinemann Title

Peppers, D, Rogers, M & Dorf, B. (2000). Is Your Company Ready For One-To-One Marketing? Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb.

Reinartz, W., and Kumar, V. (2002). "The mismanagement of customer loyalty",   Harvard Business Review, 80 (7): 4-12.

Rigby, D. K. and Ledingham, D. (2004), “CRM done right”, Harvard Business Review.    82, 11:118-128.

Rigby, D., Reichheld, F. and Schefter. P. (2002). Avoid the four perils of CRM. Harvard Business Review, 80(2): 101-109.

Rowley, J. and Dawes, J. (2000) "Disloyalty: a closer look at non-loyals", Journal of         Consumer Marketing, 17 (6):538 – 547


Sheth, J. , Sisodia, R. and Sharma, A. (2000). “The antecedents and consequences of customer-centric marketing”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28            (1): 55-66.

Sin, L. , Tse, A. , and Yim, F.  (2005). “CRM: Conceptualization and scale development”. European Journal of Marketing, 39 (11/12): 1264-1290.

Tech Mahindra (2011) CE3: Customer Experience Enhancement Engine. Retrieved        from <             .aspx> March 21, 2011.


Teo, H. , Wei, K., & Benbasat, I. (2003). Predicting intention to adopt interorganizational             linkages: An       institutional perspective. MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 19-49.

Thirkell, C. and Huff, L. (2007)“The strategic value of CRM: a technology adoption             perspective”.Journal of Strategic Marketing, 15: 421-439.

Thompson S., Devadoss, P. and Pan, L. (2006). "Towards a holistic perspective of          customer relationship management (CRM) implementation: A case study of the        Housing and Development Board, Singapore". Decision Support systems, 42:       1613-1627

Treacy, M. and Wiersema, F. (2005). The Discipline of Market Leaders. Cambridge,          MA: Perseus.
Peel, J. (2002) CRM: Redefining Customer Relationship Management.Woburn, MA:        Digital Press.

Vandermerwe, S. (2004). “Achieving deep customer focus”. MIT Sloan Management       Review, 45 (3): 26-34.



Varadarajan.R. (2006). “CRM Implementation: Effectiveness Issues and Insights”.           Journal of Service Research,9(2):184-194

Vavra, T. (2002). Aftermarketing: How to Keep Customers for Life through Relationship    Marketing.  Homewood, IL: Business One-Irwin.

Verhoef, C. and Langerak, C. (2002). “Eleven misconceptions about customer     relationship             management”. Business Strategy Review, 13(4): 70-76

Wong, A., and Sohal, A. (2003). “Service quality and customer loyalty perspectives on two levels of retail relationships”. Journal of Services Marketing, 17 (5): 495-513.

Zeithaml, V. A., Parasuraman, A. B. & Leonard L. S. (2002). Five Imperatives for   Improving Service Quality. Management Review, 31(4), 29-38.







W1 1st Feb 2011












Preparing & deciding research topic and plan













Submission of Research Proposal


Writing Critical literature Review


 Collection of data through various pre-decided methods












 Analysis and interpretation of collected data













Final writing of research with proper sequencing













Review and rectifications








Strategy: The scope and direction of firm over a long-term which achieves a benefit for the firm through its resource configuration within an environment where meeting the market needs and fulfilling the expectations of stakeholders is challenging.

Management: The process of bringing people together with an aim of meeting al the set objectives and goals through the effective and efficient utilization of the resources that are available (Hummel et al. 2010).

Customer Satisfaction: This entails a measure of the way services and specific products that a company supplies surpasses or meets the expectations of clients, the client number, total customer percentage of those who have had experience with the organization, or if its various services or product ratings surpasses the specified satisfaction.

Customer Retention: Customer retention refers to keeping a clients business rather than have the client use competitor’s services or products (Nevin, 2005).

Customer Relationship Management: A strategy that has been widely implemented to manage company interaction with customers, client and sales prospect; it gives a description of the set business strategy within a given company and within the various departments (Nevin, 2005).

Customer Oriented: Customer oriented means completely focusing on customers wants and needs only, it is not about making the sale, and it is not about how much the commission you make, your focus is solely on the customer

Capability: This entails a company’s ability to attain its set objectives and goals through a planned implementation (Hummel et al. 2010). 

Customer Loyalty: This relates to the attraction of the right clients, making them purchase, purchase more often, purchase in greater quantities and even bring in new clients(Gefen, 2002). 

Customer Service: This is the process of providing services to clients before, through and after buying. It entails a line up of the various activities created to allow for increased client satisfaction level and to ensure that the service or product provided matches the expectations of the clients.

Purchase: To obtain ownership of security or other assets in exchange for money or value also called buy.

Marketing: This involves an organisational set purpose or function to allow for the creation, communication and delivery of value to clients and the management of customer relationships through ways that are beneficial to the company and to its different stakeholders.

After Marketing: After marketing is a term that denotes the activities that a firm undertakes after the sale is made, after sales activities are broadly understood as after sales services but is more than the service support that is given after-sales.

Sales: This involves the process of selling different services or products in exchange for money a well as any other form of compensation. It involves completing a particular commercial activity (Thompson et al, 2006).

Implementation: Process of executing a plan, method or particular design for a given undertaking.

 Customer Relationship Strategy: CRM strategy refers to that through which companies manage their relationships with sales prospects and consumers. It entails the use of technology for organizing, automating and synchronizing business processes and mainly sales (Nevin, 2005).

Customer Needs: Problems that customers intend to solve with the purchase of goods or services.

Competitive Advantage: This occurs when a company is capable of delivering benefits similar to those of its rivals but at a cost that is lower, cost advantage, or provides better benefits than their rivals(Hummel et al. 2010). 

Business Strategy: This is a document that gives an articulation of the next step for a given business in pursuit of attaining its various goals (Hummel et al. 2010).

Upload Assignment

250 words


Get Your Assignment

Don’t delay more, place your order now. Quick assignment help will be offered to you.

Order Now