The term failed state is widely used to imply a circumstance that has been unable to satisfy some of a sovereign government's essential standards and duties. The following features are commonly used to characterize a failed state to make this description more precise:
The central authority of a failing state is weak or ineffectual, leaving it with little actual influence over the majority of its territory it has widespread corruption and criminality; it has refugees and involuntary population movement, and it has a sharp economic decline.
In the opinion of Max Weber, a state may be considered to "succeed" if it retains a monopoly on the lawful use of physical force inside its borders. When this is shattered (for example, by the overwhelming presence of warlords, paramilitary organizations, or terrorism), the state's existence is questioned, and the state becomes a failed state. Because it is difficult to determine if a government has "a monopoly on the legitimate use of force" (which involves issues with the concept of "legitimate"), it is difficult to say when a state has "failed." Understanding what Weber meant by it can help address the legitimacy issue. According to Weber, only the state possesses the means of production required for physical aggression (politics as vocation). This indicates that while the state does not need legitimacy to gain a de facto monopoly on violence, it will need it if it needs to employ it (de jure).
The term is also used to describe a state that has been rendered ineffective (i.e., has nominal military/police control over its territory only in the sense of having no armed opposition groups directly challenging state authority; in other words, the "no news is good news" approach) and is unable to enforce its laws uniformly due to high crime rates, extreme political corruption, and extensive informal market, impenetrable bureaucracy, judicial ineffectiveness, and military ineffectiveness.
A "failed state," according to the Crisis States Research Centre, is one in which the government is unable to carry out its basic security and development responsibilities and has no direct control over its territory or borders. A failed state cannot generate the conditions that allow it to exist. In the policy world, this phrase is employed in a variety of ways (for example, there is a trend to designate a "poorly performing" state as "failed," which the Crisis States Research Centre denies). An "enduring state" is the polar opposite of a "failed state," and the absolute dividing line between the two is difficult to discern at the edges. Some parts of the state, such as local state organizations, may survive even in a collapsed state.
The index's rankings are based on twelve measures of state vulnerability, including four social, two economic, and six political indexes. The signs are not intended to predict when a country may face violence or collapse; instead, they're used to assess its risk of failure or violence. All nations in the red (Alert, FSI 90 or higher), orange (Warning, FSI 60 or higher), or yellow (Moderate, FSI 30 or higher) categories have characteristics that render sections of their communities and institutions vulnerable to collapse. Some people in the yellow zone may be failing quicker than those in the more dangerous orange or red zones, putting them at greater risk of violence. Those in the red area, on the other hand, may show indications of improvement or are degrading slowly, allowing them time to implement mitigation methods.
Pressures resulting from high population density about, food supply and other life-sustaining factors are known as demographic pressures. Border conflicts, ownership or occupation of land, access to transportation outlets, control of religious or historical sites, and closeness to environmental threats pressure a population's settlement patterns and physical settings.
The massive migration of refugees and internally displaced peoples: forced uprooting of large communities as a result of random or targeted violence and repression, resulting in food shortages, disease, a lack of clean water, land competition, and turmoil that can spiral into more significant humanitarian and security issues both within and between countries.
It is based on current or historical injustices, which might span generations, including crimes conducted with impunity against communal groupings and specific groups targeted for persecution or repression by state authorities or dominant organizations. Political exclusion has been institutionalized. As indicated by the growth of "hate" radio, pamphleteering, and stereotyped or patriotic political discourse, public scapegoating of groups seen to have earned riches, prestige, or power.
The "brain drain" of professionals, intellectuals, and political dissidents and the voluntary departure of "the middle class" are examples of regular and prolonged human flight. This statistic also includes the growth of exile/ex-pat communities.
Group-based inequality, or perceived inequality, in education, jobs, and economic status determines uneven economic development along group lines. Poverty levels by group, infant mortality rates, and educational levels are also considered.
Gradual economic deterioration of society is assessed by a sharp and severe economic decline (using: per capita income, GNP, debt, child mortality rates, poverty levels, and business failures.) A reduction in commodity prices, trade revenue, foreign investment, or debt payments occurs unexpectedly. The collapse or depreciation of the official currency and the emergence of shadow economies such as drug trafficking, smuggling, and capital flight. Failure of the state to pay government and military services wages and other financial commitments to its citizens, such as pension payments.
Persistent corruption or profiteering among ruling elites, as well as opposition to transparency, accountability, and political representation, any broad public distrust of state institutions and processes is included.
the loss of core state functions that benefit residents, such as failing to protect citizens from terrorism and violence and providing critical services such as health, education, sanitation, and public transit. The state infrastructure uses security forces, presidential staff, central bank, diplomatic service, customs, and collection agencies to assist the governing classes.
When authoritarian, dictatorial or military authority emerges, suspending or manipulating constitutional and democratic institutions and procedures—politically motivated (rather than criminal) violence against innocent citizens, many political prisoners or dissidents are being denied due process following international standards. Any widespread violation of people', organizations', or cultural institutions' legal, political, or social rights (e.g., harassment of the press, the politicization of the judiciary, internal use of the military for political goals, public suppression of political adversaries, religious or cultural intolerance.)
With elite or praetorian guards operating with impunity, the emergence of state-sponsored or state-backed private militias that terrify political opponents suspected "enemy," or citizens perceived to be sympathetic to the opposition. An "army inside an army" that serves the ruling military or political clique's objectives. Rival militias, guerrilla forces, or private armies emerge in armed conflict or long-term violent operations against state security forces.
A division of governing elites and state institutions along ethnic lines, Ruling elites' use of violent nationalistic language, particularly damaging versions of community irredentism (e.g., "Greater Serbia") or communal solidarity (e.g., "ethnic cleansing," "defending the religion")
Intervention by other states or external factors: military or paramilitary intervention in the internal affairs threatened by other armies, states, identity groups, or entities that impact the inner balance of power or conflict resolution. Donor intervention, mainly if there is a risk of over-reliance on foreign aid or peacekeeping deployments.
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