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Case study Organising a world class sporting event emphasising on lean project management

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Table of Contents

Introduction-

In this report, the case study of 2022 FIFA world cup to be held in Qatar is considered as the project to be managed. Various standard project management methodology and tools available like PMBOK, Prince2, Lean Six Sigma (DMAIC Methodology) and, Organisational Project Management (OPM) are considered while answering the key questions of this project.

1With regards to the event that you have chosen to organise, identify and elaborate-

1.1.1 The processes from PMBOK or Prince2 that you would use to help with the stakeholder management:

Here the prince2 methodology is considered. Prince2 by definition means that it is project in controlled environment. The methodology of Prince2 details a process-based approach for project management and in the UK;this methodology is highly considered in construction projects, event management process, and various other types of projects (PRINCE2 Processes - 7 Processes Of PRINCE2 Explained | UK. 2019).Within the Prince2 methodology, stakeholder management involves six steps. For identifying and managing the stakeholders for 2022 FIFA world cup to be held in Qatar, these six steps must be followed.

Step 1: Identification of stakeholders :- This step involves identification of the key people involved in the project who can affect the project or affected by the project directly or indirectly. For this, the project manager can ask some questions the answers to which will identify the particular stakeholders. Issues like, how many stakeholders are there in the project or what are the sources of stakeholders are asked in general. Based on the data regarding stakeholders involved in FIFA 2018, the question to how many stakeholders would generate the answer 9 stakeholders and the in response to questions to sources, the different stakeholder groups will be identified from various sources (figure 1) (2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, 2019).

Figure 1: Stakeholder Sources ; Source: (PRINCE2 Primer, 2019)

Step 2: Stakeholder profile creating and analysis :- The next step is developing the stakeholder profile, which includes information regarding the influence, attitudes, and interests of the stakeholders along with understanding the influence of the power of each stakeholder group. The PRINCE2 methodology considers both the emotional aspect along with the element of influence concerning power. For instance, the stakeholder group of event organisers involve organisations like FIFA, and the host city councils are profiled as high influencer high power groups with real interests associated to the success of the event (2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, 2019).

Step 3: Defining the stakeholder engagement approach :- This step includes defining the way, and the FIFA 2022 world cup will effectively engage with the stakeholders whereby, the responsibilities associated with communication and the important messages to be delivered determined. In this step, for each of the identified stakeholder group, the certain criteria are required to be agreed. For instance, standards such as the information the stakeholder groups requires from this project, the data that the stakeholder group must deliver to the project, the format, frequency and methods for communication during the project and identification of the senders and receivers of communication related to the project (2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, 2019).

Step 4: Planning the engagements :- This step includes illustrating the methods of communication and the timings of communication relating to the project. In the case of FIFA 2022 world cup, this could be done best after illustrating the way this project is likely to engage its key stakeholder groups. One task is the selection of sender of the communication, and during this task, it is necessary to select personals who are good communicators and trusted by the audience (2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, 2019).

Step 5: Engaging stakeholders :- Here in this step, engaging the stakeholders in the project requires executing the planned communication and engagement process. Stakeholder engagement, however, is not a one-step process but various stages in the stakeholder management process result in stakeholder engagement. For instance, the steps of identification of stakeholder groups and analysing the stakeholder profiles also helps in engaging the stakeholders while communicating the project requirements is the single most important aspect of stakeholder engagement (2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, 2019).

Step 6: Measuring the effectiveness :- The last step is measuring the effectiveness of the stakeholder management process for the event. Here, the efficiency of the stakeholder engagements are measured by checking all the important stakeholders the information required has been achieved or not and whether the most important communication mediums are covered or not (2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, 2019).

These steps can be appropriately used in managing the key stakeholders for the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar. The Prince2 methodology is one of the most widely used project management methodologies in the west that can ensure lean project management and these steps are according to this methodology.

1.1.2 The critical stakeholders for the event:

Based on the Prince2 methodology of project management 9 different stakeholder groups have been identified in the following table 1. The table illustrates the key stakeholder groups with detailed descriptions of their involvement with the event, interest and power and power. Based on the table the identified stakeholder groups are placed in the stakeholder matrix in figure 2. The information is supported by the stakeholder management information regarding the FIFA 2018 world cup.

Stakeholder group

Description

Interest

Power

Justification

Event organisers

Event organisers include the FIFA, the host country football association (UAE football association), the host city council (QATAR), LOC, the stadium authorities and the regional committees.

High

High

The event organizers have high power over the events and their organization andhave high interest as the success or failure would directly benefit or harm them. Thus, they must be managed closely.

Workforce

The employees of the event organiser associations and volunteer groups helping in arranging the event peacefully

Low

Low

The workforce has both low interest and low power. The workforce has no power over the crucial decision-making and neither the success nor the failure would harm or benefit them thus they are required to be monitored only.

The participating countries

These involve the national teams qualified in the trial games to participate in the final events starting from group leagues to the world cup finals

Low

High

The participants though have low interest with the success or failure of the event have high power because their participation would determine the success of failure of the project. Hence, they must be keep satisfied.

Commercial affiliates

These include the FIFA partners, the sponsors of the event.

High

High

Similar to theevent organizers, the commercial affiliates also have high power over the events and their organization and have high interest as the success or failure would directly benefit or harm them. Thus, they must be managed closely.

Organisations in football

These include The European Club Association, The Fédération Internationale des Associations de FootballeursProfessionnels (FIFPro), The World League Forum and other FIFA member associations 

High

Low

The football organizations have very high interest as the event would directly benefit them by have low power over the event decisions thus they must be kept informed.

Supply chain

Companies that produce products to support the events

High

low

The supply chain also have high interest as the event would directly benefit them by have low power over the event decisions thus they must be kept informed.

Attendees

Fan groups, ticket holders people representing the views

Low

Low

The attendees has both low interest and low power because they hold no power over the crucial decision-making and neither the success nor the failure would harm or benefit them thus they are required to be monitored only.

Table 1: Stakeholder profiling; Source: (Engagement First Phase: Verifying the sustainability strategy, 2019)

Figure 2: Stakeholder Matrix ; Source: (Author)

2 In what ways would you have implemented lean project management for this event?

In this event, the principles of lean project management can be applied in various stages. Under the principles of lean project management, stages must exclude wastes in the processes to result in delivery of the cost-efficient project in due course of time. There are various best practices whereby opportunities can be identified for reducing or eliminating wastes in the processes. Figure 3 identifies the areas where lean project can be implemented. 

Figure 3: Areas identified for implementing lean project management for minimising wastes through best practices approach ; Source: (Author)

The following table 2 illustrates the areas from which wastes can be implemented along with the best practices to be implemented for eliminating the wastes.

Areas opportunities for waste reduction under lean project management

Best practices and processes for eliminating wastes

Vendor management 

From the PMBOK, the project procurement management can be applied along with applying the implementing agile practices from the OPM methodology for reducing the wastes in the areas of vendor management.

Communication and reporting

The principles of project communication management from PMBOK methodology coupled with Theme Progress From PRINCE2 methodology can be applied for wastes regarding time and resources in the communication and reporting phase.

Backlogs

For managing the wastes produced due to backlogs and delayed processes, the principle process of managing stage boundaries under prince2 methodology can be applied along with implementing the planning and monitoring phase under the PMBOK methodology.

Surplus materials in inventory

By applying the Operationalizing OPM of OPM process, inventory management can be done in a way, which produces least amounts of waste. Also by implementing, the planning process of PMBOK or Prince2 methodology wastes can be reduced as well.

Transportation

Through a proper procurement, management plan under the PMBOK methodology wastes and redundancy during transportation can be eliminated.

Quality management

For ensuring the quality of the event through reducing wastes in quality management plan like huge time spent during quality, inspection can be reduced by implementingAnalyse, Improve, Control processes under lean six sigma process.

Control phase

In the control phase waste in the processes for imparting control like time spent during the delay in the documentation, resources deployed in risk management can be eliminated or reduced by implementing define, measure and control process of lean six-sigma DMAIC Methodology.

Table 2: Areas of implementing lean project management for minimising wastes through best practices approach ; Source: (Nicholas, & Steyn, 2017)

3 Identify and elaborate processes from PMBOK, PRINCE2, Organisational Project Management (OPM), Agile Practices, and Lean Six Sigma (DMAIC Methodology) that could be used to implement lean project management.

Table 2 has identified the areas concerning the event of FIFA World Cup 2022 to be held in Qatar where lean project management can be implemented. Here many processes have been identified under the project management methodologies of PMBOK, PRINCE2, Organisational Project Management (OPM), Agile Practices, and Lean Six Sigma (DMAIC Methodology) which would result in the application of the principles of lean project management in the identified areas. The underlying principle of lean project management is the reduction or elimination of wastes in the process and stages of appropriate project management.

In the PMBOK technology there, areas specific knowledge areas, which details where agile can be process can be implemented. As illustrated in figure 4, four of the knowledge areas are same for traditional and agile process while 4 other areas have differing traditional and agile approaches.

Figure 4: Difference in knowledge areas in PMBOK 6 under traditional and agile approach ; Source: (Brioso, 2015)

Figure 5 details the various process and stages under the Prince2 methodology implementing which in a project management methodology helps in accomplishing lean project management.

 

Figure 5: Processes in prince2 methodology ; Source: (Soviet al., 2016)

As per figure 6, organizational project management includes 4 key process has has specific impact on business. Implementing one or more of these processes can help in implementing lean. The areas where lean can be implemented as identified in figure 3 implements one of more of these processes.

Figure 6: OPM

Source: (Brioso, 2015)

The lean six-sigma DMAIC methodology as shown in figure 7 details 5 key process implementing which lean project management can be achieved in the key areas identified in figure 3.

Figure 7: Process under Lean Six Sigma (DMAIC Methodology)

Source: (Brioso, 2015)

As described in figure 8, there are 6 processes interpreted as phases under agile methodology that brings lean project implementation into actualization. The process of concept building is implement under each of the area identified where lean can be implemented as per figure 3.

Figure 8: Process under Agile Methodology

Source: (Brioso, 2015)

Managing the FIFA World Cup 2022 involves many phases with different tasks, and many of these tasks include the possibilities of generating wastes. Thus, the process that can help in reducing the wastes from the following identified areas as illustrated in the above figures has been described.

Vendor management: The first being that has been identified where wastes can occur is vendor management. The FIFA world cup event organising would require recruitment of many vendors for supplying foods, playing kits for players, nets in the ground, for making the stadiums up to international standards. Now lack of proper planning in procurement management can result in duplication in numbers of vendors, which would result in the run over budgets and delays in the documentation of procurement. Processes like procurement management under PMBOK and agile practices from the organisational project management methodology can help in addressing this issue (Brioso, 2015). The procurement management involves a planning and control phase, which would help in identification planning and documenting the vendors to be contacted. While a backup for vendors must be kept only a selected number of, the vendor should be the first choice for material procurement. This will result in reducing redundancy. The principle of agile practices under OPM also same agile practices like applying the Scrum Framework for vendor management would help in achieving similar results.

Communication and reporting: Communication and reporting of progress should follow a specific process and schedule, which can be prepared using project communication management from PMBOK methodology coupled with Theme Progress from PRINCE2 methodology. Lack of a proper communication plan, communicating the project status, the progress of the project, material requirements of the project to the key stakeholders can result in creating backlogs in the project. This can cause the delay in staging the event on the due start of event date for the world cup. The PMBOK methodology includes a communication management stage where a proper communication plan is developed by listing the methods and channels of communication, the names of information sender and receivers. The process of Theme Progress under Prince2 methodology directs that progress report and project status report should be prepared and delivered during weekly meetings so that backlogs are avoided through prior identification.

Backlogs: By managing, the stage boundaries, which is a crucial process under Prince2 methodology backlogs, can be avoided during the project management for the FIFA world cup events. Backlogs can be created due to multiple reasons like unavailability of funds, unavailability of vendors and raw materials, delay in SCM etc. During the process of the project, the board is assured that the deliverables planned are properly delivered which in turn ensures that backlogs are avoided (Brioso, 2015).

Surplus materials in inventory: Material management is a part of inventory management and predicting the inventory needs is necessary for proper inventory management for supplies. However, sometimes an abundance of materials in the inventory creates surplus resulting in overrun budgets for events like FIFA world cup. By applying the Operationalizing OPM of OPM process, inventory management can be done in a way, which produces least amounts of waste. Here, organisational project management also by implementing, the planning process of PMBOK or Prince2 methodology wastes can be reduced as well (Soviet al., 2016).

Transportation: Delays occur in supply chain management in project management due to delays in transportation. Lack of availability or enough vehicles such as for transporting the different national teams from hotels to the stadium and lack of proper journey plan for the national teams can be detrimental for the successful staging of events. This is because the players can arrive late to the games in question. Such unwanted incidents can be avoided by developing a proper procurement, management plan under the PMBOK methodology wastes and redundancy during transportation can be eliminated through making proper schedules and sticking to it (Brioso, 2015).

Quality management: Quality Management of the events like individual games, opening and closing ceremony, and prize distribution ceremonies after each game is a tedious yet import job and must be ensured through imparting control during each of the phases. Analyse, Improve, Control processes under lean six-sigma process under lean six sigma DMAIC Methodology can help in accomplishing this but identification if areas requiring quality improvement through analysis, making a plan of improvement and imparting control in implementation phase through control measures (Sharma, Gupta, & Saini, 2018).

Control phase: In the control phase, waste in the processes for imparting control like time spent during the delay in the documentation, resources deployed in risk management can be eliminated or reduced. This is ensured by implementingthe define, measure and control process of lean six-sigma DMAIC Methodology.

Conclusion

From the above analysis, it can be concluded that each of the project management tool namely PRINCE2, PMBOK, OPM, Agile practices, LEAN Six Sigma and DMAIC methodology has a unique significance in handling the project of 2022 FIFA world cup to be held in Qatar. The chosen PMBOK tool has covered important knowledge areas like scope management, integration management, cost and time management, risk and communication management and stakeholders and quality management. This, in turn, helps the project management team to smoothen the workflow across various activities. The organisational project management, in turn, manages the portfolios and programs alignment with achieving the strategic goals. In 2022 FIFA world cup this project management tool will help in viewing common practices. Using maturity model of OPM the organisations that are associated with the FIFA world cup can be able to identify the relative position on the scale. The practices and structure in this model can be viewed and linked with the teams.

References

2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.fifa.com/worldcup/organisation/

2018 FIFA World Cup™ Stakeholder

Brioso, X. (2015). Integrating ISO 21500 guidance on project management, lean construction and PMBOK. Procedia Engineering, 123, 76-84.

Engagement First Phase: Verifying the sustainability strategy (2019). Retrieved from https://resources.fifa.com/image/upload/2018-fifa-world-cuptm-stakeholder-engagement-first-phase.pdf?cloudid=kwdvrzsyypxuwtxcesxg

Nicholas, J. M., & Steyn, H. (2017). Project management for engineering, business and technology. Routledge.

PRINCE2 Primer. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.prince2primer.com/stakeholder-engagement-with-prince2-2017/

PRINCE2 Processes - 7 Processes Of PRINCE2 Explained | UK. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.prince2.com/uk/prince2-processes

Sharma, R., Gupta, P., & Saini, V. (2018).SIX SIGMA DMAIC METHODOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION IN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY 2. Journal of Manufacturing Engineering, 13(1), 042-050.

Sohi, A. J., Hertogh, M., Bosch-Rekveldt, M., &Blom, R. (2016). Does lean & agile project management help coping with project complexity?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 226, 252-259.

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