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Case Study of Coca-Cola UK

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would never have been able to finish my dissertation without the guidance of my supervisor, help from friends, and support from my family.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor for his excellent guidance, caring, patience, and providing me with an excellent atmosphere for doing research. I would like to thank , who as a good friend, was always willing to help and gave his best suggestions. It would have been a lonely lab without him. Many thanks to my family members who supported to carry out this study in proper manner. In the entire study my subordinates supported me in conducting especially at the time of collecting information which was fruitful.

I would also like to thank my parents, two elder sisters, and elder brother. They were always supporting me and encouraging me with their best wishes as the entire study was remarkable experience for me.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Brand refers to name, logo or any other type of symbol that distinguish one firm from another in the market. In the present era due to rise in competition level it has become necessary for every firm to develop its own brand in the market so that unique identity can be developed and customers can be encouraged easily to buy the product.

Brand loyalty plays significant role in the modern era as it provides base to the company and supports to become leader in the market. The main reason behind carrying out this study is to assess the brand loyalty of Coca Cola in UK as through this organization can know its overall position in the market and consumption pattern of its target market.

For carrying out the study in appropriate manner various objectives have been developed which are to examine the current brand loyalty of Coca Cola, UK, to identify and assess the brand loyalty strategies adopted by soft drink industry, UK, to examine the effectiveness of current brand loyalty strategies of Coca Cola, UK and to recommend valuable brand loyalty strategies for Coca Cola UK on the basis of conducted customer research.

The present study is descriptive in nature which is used for describing characteristics of the population and supports in in-depth analysis. Furthermore to collect data both primary and secondary sources have been considered where primary data is collected from customers of Coca Cola through structured questionnaire and interview and secondary  one is obtained through sources such as books, journals, online articles etc.

Sample size chosen is 100 customers and 10 managers of Coca cola. For carrying out the present study positivism research philosophy has been used where role of investigator is only limited to data collection. Further both inductive and deductive approach has been adopted for conducting study.

Whereas, random sampling has been used in order to collect information from the customers of the firm and in case of managers information has been acquired from them through adoption of judgmental sampling. Further, to analyze data both qualitative and quantitative techniques have been employed in order to carry out the study where in former on different themes have been formed and in later one tool like SPSS  has been employed.

After carrying out the entire it has become easy to understand brand loyalty of Coca cola in the market of UK and all other brand loyalty strategies being adopted by enterprise in order to attract its customers. Products of Coca Cola are easily available in the market of UK and this encourages customers to go for this brand.  Furthermore, company provides experience to the customers about the brands instead of products and services which is also effective.

Company like Coca cola has designed effective advertising and promotional strategies that posses capability to affect purchase behavior of its customers and this assist in increasing brand loyalty which is regarded as the ultimate objective of the business enterprise. Organization strongly focuses on its price being set for its soft drink as it influences purchase behavior of customers and it is the basic reason behind setting moderate prices for its products.

Attractive window display of firm is totally unique where products such as diet coke etc are highlighted in different way through which company provides remarkable experience to its customers in the market of soft drink. Furthermore, on the basis of conclusion there are some recommendations to firm which are the strategic brand adopted by business enterprise is not at all effective so, it is necessarily required to focus on this process so that organization can easily meet with the expectation of customers. Process of customer engagement of Coca Cola requires improvement and two way communication is required so that business enterprise can know about taste and preference of its target market.

Table of Contents-

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION.. 6

1.1 Background of the study. 6

1.2 Rationale of the study. 7

1.3 Research aims and objectives. 8

1.4 Analysis and framework. 9

1.5 Significance of the study. 9

1.6 Scope of the study. 10

1.7 Structure of the dissertation. 10

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW... 12

2.1 Introduction. 12

2.2 Meaning of brand. 12

2.3 Significance of brand. 14

2.4 Meaning of brand loyalty. 17

2.5 Brand loyalty strategies. 21

2.6 Conceptual Framework. 23

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.. 25

3.1 Introduction. 25

3.2 Research philosophy. 25

3.3 Research approach. 26

3.4 Research Design. 28

3.5 Sampling. 29

3.6 Data collection. 32

3.7 Data Analysis. 34

3.8 Ethical consideration. 35

3.9 Accessibility issue. 36

3.10 Research limitations. 36

CHAPTER-4: DATA ANALYSIS. 38

4.1 Introduction. 38

4.2 Analysis of demographic section. 38

4.3 Cross frequency and chi square analysis. 40

4.4 Management Interview.. 59

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 62

5.1 Introduction. 62

5.2 Conclusion. 62

5.3 Recommendation. 65

5.4 Scope for the future research. 66

REFLECTION.. 67

REFERENCES. 1

APPENDIX-I: QUESTIONNAIRE.. 5

APPENDIX-II: CHI SQUARE TABLE.. 8

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Brand refers to name, logo or any other type of symbol that distinguish one firm from another in the market. In the present era due to rise in competition level it has become necessary for every firm to develop its own brand in the market so that unique identity can be developed and customers can be encouraged easily to buy the product.

The objectives that good brand supports in accomplishing includes connects target prospects emotionally, motivates the buyer, delivers the message clearly and concrete user loyalty (Elliott, Elliott and Percy, 2007). The present study focuses on the importance of brand loyalty where Coca cola has been chosen as one of the organization that is considered as the leader in the beverage industry. Firm was founded in 1886 in United States and offers diet coke, Coca cola cherry, Coca cola zero etc. Organization is also well known in other categories such as sports and energy drink.

 Coca Cola is well known in market for serving its customers through promotional discounts and new fangled product development.  Presently the soft drink market is developing at faster pace and this provides opportunity to Coca Cola and other companies operating in this sector to serve customers in better manner.

A strong brand is invaluable as the battle for customers intensifies day by day. Furthermore it is required for every firm to spend time investing in researching, defining and building the brand. In short brand is a source of promise to the target market and can support in increasing their satisfaction level (Kotler and foertsch, 2006).

Level of competition is rising in every sector and industry so overall operations of every firm are affected due to this and it directly affects survival. So due to this reason organizations have started to focus on their brand and effective branding strategies have been developed so that customers can be satisfied in best possible manner.

Presently firms have started to offer products keeping in view taste and preference of its target market. Factors such as social, cultural etc are necessarily considered that directly affects the purchase behavior of customers. Increase in quality level and moderate price is the most effective factor that encourages customer to become brand loyal and increases their satisfaction level (Kapferer, 2008).

Firms have started to develop new brand so that customers can be encouraged to become loyal towards their brand for instance if any firm relies on promotional strategy that it directly benefits  its customers then and leads to strong brand loyalty. Strong brand loyalty has direct impact on the sales of enterprise as customers prefer to repurchase the product and marketing strategies developed by competitors is not effective in front of them. So this supports organization to improve its performance in the market and is known in every market due to its loyal customers.    

1.2 Rationale of the study

Brand loyalty plays significant role in the modern era as it provides base to the company and supports to become leader in the market. The main reason behind carrying out this study is to assess the brand loyalty of Coca Cola in UK as through this organization can know its overall position in the market and consumption pattern of its target market. The Coca-Cola Company  is the world's largest beverage company, refreshing consumers with more than 500 sparkling and still brands. 

Company's portfolio features 20 billion-dollar brands including, Diet Coke, Fanta, Sprite, Coca-Cola Zero, vitaminwater, POWERADE, Minute Maid, Simply, Georgia, Dasani, FUZE TEA and Del Valle. Presently in the competitive market it has become difficult for firms to sustain in the market and various hurdles are present in the business environment. So it is required to adopt effective strategies so that customers can be encouraged to become brand loyal and they may not prefer to shift towards other brand present in the market.

Product like soft drink is consumed by people of every age group and is popular in the entire market. But for this type of product many substitutes are present in the market due  to which firm cannot charge own price for its products and it is required to maintain certain level of quality so that every consumer can be encouraged to consume it and this serves to be profitable for the business enterprise. The soft drink industry is highly dominated by Coke and Pepsi as both companies sells same product in the market.

Furthermore it is required for companies to focus on their product and highlight the major benefits of consuming product. Whereas firms have to focus on their marketing strategies so that it may affect purchase behavior of customers and is beneficial for the business enterprise. It is well known fact that band loyalty is the ultimate goal of the entity and is aligned with the business objectives.

Generally brand loyalty is the customer preference to buy a particular brand in product category and provides feeling of satisfaction. Loyalty takes place when customers perceive that brand offers the right product features and level of quality at right price. Brand loyal customers prefer to pay high price for the product and supports firm to increase market share and profitability.  

Main reason for which brand loyalty is important involves higher sales volume as company can sell more products if customers are loyal and is beneficial in future also. Premium price ability also shows importance of brand loyalty as its increase leads consumers to be less sensitive to price changes and in case if firm charges more prices for product then customers are ready to pay for it.

Furthermore it is considered as one of the most effective way to retain customers in the market and less investment is required in activities for retaining the existing target market. All these kind of benefits cannot be grabbed easily by firm in the competitive market. The environment where soft drink companies operate is dynamic is nature and taste, preference of target market changes from time to time. So it is necessary for firm to deal with the alteration in taste of consumers in order to increase their satisfaction level.

In the modern era some companies tries to keep their customer brand loyal by providing them additional benefits through lucky draw and other schemes. Furthermore it depends on every firm to choose the appropriate strategies for developing brand loyalty as taste and preference of every consumer differs from each other.

Marketing campaign of company like Coca Cola is quite effective where products are advertised in unique manner so that customers may take quick decision to buy it. A single product cannot sustain in the market for long period of time and alteration is necessarily required so that it can be kept on the top of priority. Company like Coca Cola has started to focus on value creation and building long term relationship with its target market. Due to this reason all its products are popular in the market and consumed worldwide.

1.3 Research aims and objectives 

For carrying out the study in appropriate manner various objectives have been developed through which expected results can be attained easily.

Following are the objectives developed:
  • To examine the current brand loyalty of Coca Cola, UK
  • To identify and assess the brand loyalty strategies adopted by soft drink industry, UK
  • To examine the effectiveness of current brand loyalty strategies of Coca Cola, UK
  • To recommend valuable brand loyalty strategies for Coca Cola UK on the basis of conducted customer research.
Research Questions

In order to achieve all the research objectives developed following questions have been developed

  • Whether brand loyalty is perception driven or demand driven?
  • How effective is fulfilling immediate needs and wants to customers in achieving brand loyalty?
  • How important is timeless values to the customers in brand loyalty?
  • How effective is brand communication in brand loyalty?

1.4 Analysis and framework

The present study is descriptive in nature which is used for describing characteristics of the population and supports in in-depth analysis. Main objective is to assess the brand loyalty of Coca-Cola in UK for which this research design is appropriate. Furthermore to collect data both primary and secondary sources have been considered through which expected results can be gained easily. For collection of primary data structured questionnaire has been designed in order to collect information from managers and customers of Coca cola.

On the other hand for collection of secondary data various books, journals and online articles have been referred. Sample size chosen is 100 customers and 10 managers of Coca cola out of which five managers got ready to give interview through video conferencing. For obtaining information from customers random sampling has been adopted and in case of managers their personal interview has been taken.

Whereas for analyzing data both qualitative and quantitative techniques have been considered wherein different themes have been formed for data of qualitative nature and SPSS software for analyzing information of quantitative nature.  Further for approaching customers telephone and physical approach has been adopted and in case of managers they have been contacted by taking prior consent.  

1.5 Significance of the study

The entire study being carried out is beneficial for Coca cola as the findings of research can support organization in determining its brand loyalty in United Kingdom and entity can know whether its customers will repurchase products on continuous basis or not.

Brand loyal customers can provide ample of opportunities to the business enterprise as it directly leads to rise in sales volume and overall profitability. Furthermore it can assist firm in development of effective strategies in order to retain its loyal customers. Whereas it provide base to the firm to compare its performance with those of competitors in the market and in turn acts as development tool.

Moreover the present study can show the growth and success level of Coca Cola in the market and on the basis of this managers and can other departments of the firm can develop effective strategies if performance of enterprise is not up to the mark and improvement is required. By grabbing large number of customers firm can easily become leader in the market and it can be known whether modifications are required in the products or not as per satisfaction level of customers.    

1.6 Scope of the study

The present study totally relies on the brand loyalty of Coca cola in UK and is beneficial at both academic and corporate level. At academic level students and other learners can consider the findings of study in order to understand the importance of brand loyalty and its impact on firm’s performance.

This can also help in their career development as knowledge level can increase in relation with the topic. It is beneficial at corporate level also where findings of the study can provide support to entire beverage industry but not only Coca cola. With the help of this study managers can develop more effective strategies for its long term survival in the market and can assist firm to encourage its customers to repurchase the products.

Branding and marketing managers of Coca cola can know real position of enterprise in the market and information can be gained in relation with its brand loyal customers. Furthermore the results derived from the study can support in development of entire beverage industry

1.7 Structure of the dissertation

For carrying out the study in appropriate manner it is required to follow the appropriate format through which accurate findings can be accomplished easily keeping in view overall aims and objectives of the study. Structure of the dissertation which has been followed in the present study is shown below:

  • Chapter 1 Introduction: It is the first chapter of the dissertation that provides clear idea about the topic being chosen for study and supports reader in understanding about it. This chapter covers various areas of the research such as background, rationale, research aims and objectives, analysis and framework, significance and scope etc. All these areas provides base to the research and plays significant role in carrying out the study in appropriate manner.
  • Chapter 2 literature Review: It is second chapter of the study and is considered as most important part of the manuscript. In this chapter views given by various authors on the topic chosen for the study is considered. In short it provides base to the study and supports in in-depth analysis. Secondary information of the study is gathered from the literature review and helps reader in understanding about the topic better. For the present study to know brand loyalty of Coca Cola various books, journals have been referred.
  • Chapter 3: Research Methodology: It is the third chapter of the dissertation that provides clear idea about the techniques adopted for carrying out the research in appropriate manner. It covers key areas such as research design, philosophy, sampling, data analysis, data collection, research type etc. On the basis of this chapter reader can obtain idea regarding the type of study and overall technique employed to reach towards a valid conclusion.
  • Chapter 4: Data analysis: It is the fourth chapter of the dissertation and plays significant role. For carrying out the study data is collected from primary source so in this chapter the information obtained is analyzed so that aims and objectives of research can be attained easily. It assists reader in understanding about the techniques present for analyzing data such as quantitative and qualitative. In the present study both techniques have been employed so as to get expected results.
  • Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation: It is the last chapter of the dissertation when findings of the study are shown and supports reader in understanding about the results derived. Furthermore on the basis of conclusion recommendations are provided for betterment.  

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

It is the second chapter of the dissertation that provides base to the entire study as views of various authors on the topic being chosen for study is considered and supports in in-depth analysis. Literature review helps in identifying the gap in the study and expected results can be attained easily.

It is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and authors. Furthermore with the help of this chapter the topic chosen for research can be understood better. In this chapter various themes have been formed so as to accomplish the aims and objectives of the research.  

2.2 Meaning of brand

Brand refers to name, logo or symbol that is publicly distinguished from other product with the purpose to communicate and market the product to the ultimate consumer. It is regarded as the name of the distinctive product or service. As per view of Lantos (2015) brand is usually protected from use by others by securing a trademark from an authorized agency, usually a government agency. In the present era every product or service is well known in the market through brands and supports in increasing sales and profitability.

Brands are generally expressed in the form of logo and help to develop awareness in the market for the benefit of business enterprise (Wallace, Buil  and Chernatony,  2014). In short for evaluating any particular in the market brand is used as one of the factor and helps management in determining its overall position in the market where lot of complexities are present. However, Shimp (2006) argued that brand provides support to the business enterprise and assists to sustain in the market for longer period of time.

In the present era products offered by every company in the market has closely related substitutes present so it has become necessary for firms to differentiate their products from those of competitors in the market so that sales volume and profitability can be increased easily (Toomey  and  Francis, 2013). According to Clarkson (2003) brand is a kind of promise to consumers with the motive to gain their trust and loyalty.

In the modern era every firm has started to focus on development of strong brand in the market so that they can easily deal with the challenges present in business environment. The main question arises in the mind of consumers before they buy product is what they will get after purchasing product of service and whether it can provide feeling of satisfaction or not. So in this case brand provides support to the management as company delivers promise to its valuable customers.

It also takes into consideration the feeling that consumers get after purchasing particular product or service (Uggla, 2006). As per view of El-Gohary and Hatem (2012) brands are built by consumers, not by companies and is regarded as the way consumers perceive a particular brand. The only thing that highly matters for the business enterprise is how consumers perceive brand and it can be in positive or negative manner. It is required for every entity to develop positive perception in mind of its target market so that valuable customers can be retained for long period of time and supports management in every possible manner.

On the basis of brand promise consumers develop expectations from the brand. Furthermore when consumers spend high amount on purchasing goods and services offered by the enterprise and assumes that expectations for the brand can be met (Rajagopal, 2008). In case if brand is not able to meet expectations of the target market then consumer may not prefer to buy the product next time and it can adversely affect organization.

However, Glynn and Woodside (2009) argued that every brand has a persona and it looks like a person who has some personality. Whereas brand persona is one that consumers may evaluate and judge before they take decision to by product or service. Furthermore it is well known fact that every brand is represented by intangible and tangible elements which takes into consideration logo, message, packaging etc.

So it is necessary that all these elements must work together and proper combination must be present so that customers can be encouraged to buy the commodities being offered. Before developing any particular brand it is analyzed by firm whether it can affect purchase behavior of customers or not and they can be influenced to buy products (Lalit  and  Paramjeet, 2013).

Presently many companies are present in the market that is enjoying the benefits of having strong brand and it is directly leading to accomplishment of their desired goals. Brand is a bundle of attributes and provides clear picture about the products in the minds of customers. Sometime it is possible that brand is memorable as it assists in providing remarkable experience to the people who buys product.

As per view of Dibb and Simkin (2007) thriving brands across the industries bring timeless values to the customers, build on them and reverberate not only with the instantaneous needs and wants of the customers, but as well their bigger aspirations. Through effective branding strategy firm can easily develop strong relationship with its target market and in turn acts as development tool for the entire firm.  

Achieving brand loyalty is key to success today for companies or brands across the industries, where the focus of the marketing practitioners in companies must be fulfilling the needs and wants, and further aspirations of the customers so that they may not prefer to shift towards other brands present in the market. Brand loyalty is the door to success for the organizations that focuses on sustainability. It is regarded as central construct to marketing but to keep customers loyal to one brand in the competitive market is very difficult (Stagg, Saunders and  Wong, 2002).

 Presently firms have started extend brands into lines of collectible merchandise. This merchandise not only increases brand loyalty but extends the message of firm to exposure.  By accomplishing the objective of attaining brand loyal customers firm can easily acquire large market share and is profitable for the firm too. According to Franzen and Moriarty (2008) firm can easily determine brand loyalty by looking at the customer purchase habits.

Furthermore various reasons are present due to which consumer may be loyal to certain brand and such reasons involve individual does not prefer to indulge in decision making process, existing brand is providing excellent customer satisfaction and consumer is having feeling of commitment to the brand. On the other hand sometime it is possible that consumers buy the brands out of convenience which is regarded as spurious loyalty.

It is well known fact that when consumers have trust towards particular brand then it can be said that brand loyalty is present and is advantageous for the business enterprise in every possible manner. In the market every firm has started to allocated funds in various activities through which they can easily retain their valuable customers like carrying out market research to determine taste and preference of customers, taking feedback from customers with the help of social networking sites such as facebook, twitter etc (Fan, 2005). So it directly acts as development tool and helps company to gain competitive advantage along with accomplishment of desired objectives

2.3 Significance of brand

In today’s competitive world branding plays vital role to thrust a business forward and supports in gaining competitive advantage. In soft drink market every firm has started to focus on its brand as it creates a face value in front of the entire world. Furthermore with the each day passing branding is regarded as the effective tool to grab new customers in the market and this directly increases value of the business.

As per view of Barker and et. Al (2011) name of the firm is usually expressed through logo and this assist in developing an inherent value for business. Main advantage of developing brand is that it is customer centric and totally focuses on the need and requirement of target market. Further a well defined brand supports in boosting sales and increases profitability level. In case if customers are attracted towards the community then word of mouth and self promotion can be regarded as the best promotional tool.

Through strong brand promotion can be easily done in any market and reduces business efforts. It is required for soft drink companies to strengthen and improve a brand as there are many business competitors present that are focusing on same target market (Morsing, 2006). However Ma (2014) argued that apart from focusing on development of brand it is required to design an effective marketing campaign through which new customers can be attracted towards the products and assists in increasing business performance.

Building a brand is only considered as half of the battle as maintaining its dignity in the market is also difficult as creating one. Management has to apply efforts so that brand can be known well known in the entire market and on the basis of this consumers can buy products (Knox, 2004).  Furthermore if any business enterprise build brand then entity has to make promise to abide by certain fundamental principles in order to increase the demand and value too.

According to Kumar (2009) one of the best ways for promoting brand in the market is with the help of social media marketing through which information can be shared with large market and increase sales volume. It supports entity in changing pattern of the business and consumerism. Through this long term engagement with customers is possible and satisfaction level of customers increases at faster pace.

On the other hand brand building can support in creating the right kind of difference for a particular brand in comparison with its competitors. In short without strong brand any firm cannot survive in the market for long period of time and leads to decline in level of sales and overall profitability.

Companies operating in soft drink industry can easily enjoy the benefits of strong brand by satisfying need of its target market in unique manner (Romaniuk and Dawes, 2005). Through strong brand companies can easily charge higher price for its products and consumers prefer to buy it as they have no other option rather than to purchase it.

As per view of  Hisrich (2000) there are some essentials present of good brand which management must consider necessarily such as it should be able to attract attention such as it should be easy to pronounce, brand name should be registered and should be clear through which target market can get idea about the aims and objectives of the organization.

By considering all these elements it is possible to retain loyal customers of the entity who are willing to pay higher price for the commodities being manufactured. Strong brands are major asset for the business enterprise and is valuable, renewable and lasting asset for entity. It is well known fact that consumers buy brand and this generates income for the organization.

Firm allocates funds in different activities so as to manufacture product of high quality and expects that this amount can be recovered in short period of time. So strong brand helps in recovering this amount and in turn large profits can be earned through this.

Brand is regarded as one of the most important element in marketing where its promotion is done so that information can easily reach towards customers and they can get idea about it. Due to perfect competition present in soft drink market all the products sold are substitute of each other so brand provides support and identification of product can be done easily (Urriza and Cebollada, 2012).

According to Kumar (2008) brand is a kind of promise to customers and is regarded as one of the best way to gain trust and confidence of target market which is required in the present era. It is a kind of image in the mind of individual and is indicator of attributes of the commodities. By developing awareness in the market it is possible for business entities to face challenges present in the market and provides ample of opportunities.

It is well known fact that good name can support in brand recall provided the commodity is satisfying consumer. Brand provides reason to the customers for consuming the specific product and acts as motivational tool. In the soft drink market company like Pepsi has developed a slogan “Out of the Blue” and Coca cola slogan is “Open Happiness”. So this directly shows the difference in two brands and provides idea in relation with the products.

Every year the slogan developed is modified by firm as per taste and preference of customers so that they may not shift towards other brand in the market. In short through slogan, companies are able to retain their valuable customers and acts as source of communication. So in this way brand plays significant role as main motive of every company is to increase its profitability and sales level by satisfying need of its customers (Wang and Finn, 2014).

However Millison and Moon (2000) argued that through strong brand customers can know whether their requirements are valuable for the enterprise or not. In short it is the door to competitive advantage and business efficiency can be increased in shorter period of time. By determining the sales volume it can be known whether the amount invested in developing brand has been recovered or not.

Furthermore with the help of strong brand firm can easily expand its operations worldwide. Marketing strategies prepared by firm provides direct support to business as in the present era majority of the consumers buy product after seeing advertisements and assists in increasing brand loyalty. Firm can only make its customer brand loyal if all the products offered satisfy their need in efficient manner.

It is the duty of management to ensure that commodities offered matches with the requirement of target market in terms of price, quality etc (Gasca, 2014).  This can support company to increase sales level and trust of large number of customers can be acquired easily for the benefit of organization.

Furthermore timely modifications are required in products as market is highly advanced and dynamic too and in case if any firm introduces advanced product in the market then all its competitors are badly affected due to this. Whereas marketing strategies are also provides support to the enterprise as valuable information is being shared with the customers due to which target market perceives particular brand positively.

Product differentiation is also possible with the help of brands as customers can easily decide which product to buy that best matches with the requirement of target market. Further brand loyal customers assist company to gain competitive advantage as in the present era firm having strong customer base is well known in the market.

2.4 Meaning of brand loyalty

Brand loyalty refers to the consumer’s emotionally charged decision to buy a specific brand again and again. As per view of Assael (2005) every consumer perceives that brand can meet their expectation and identifies with the consumer a personal level. Generally it has been analyzed that buying behavior and decision making process can be conscious or unconscious also but it always relies on trust that brand will definitely deliver on the consumer’s expectation.

In the present era brand loyalty plays significant role and can be regarded as the life blood of the business. In short it supports in increasing profitability and market share of the enterprise in market where level of competition is very high. Companies such as Pepsi, Coca Cola are well known in the market as majority of its customers are brand loyal and they prefer to buy products of the company (Johnson, 2011).

Basically brand loyalist does not prefer to purchase substitute product in the market even if their preferred brand is not present. Furthermore many factors are present that affects brand loyalty which is product, price, place and promotion. Product is the most significant factor where customer analyses whether commodity purchased can satisfy his need efficiently or not. In case if product matches with the requirement then it leads to loyalty.

Price is another factor as before purchasing products, price of different commodities are compared and this also supports in brand loyalty. Place is also significant factor where convenience is considered and customers prefers to buy product from place which is nearby and can be approached easily. Promotion is the last factor which directly affects consumer and they prefer to buy product from company that provides monetary benefits in the form of reward etc.

 So every company considers these brand loyalty factors as it is directly linked with their development. Consumers prefer to travel different stores in search of their preferred brand and this directly leads to decline in sales of competitor of companies whose customers are brand loyal. However argued Saxena (2009) that brand loyalty is based on emotional involvement that develops between consumer and the brand.

Perception of the consumer is based on the belief that brand can easily fulfill physical and emotional need in unique manner which other brands may not be able to fulfill due to which they purchase product. In the modern era majority of the customers are emotionally connected towards the brand and they does not prefer to other products as they perceive that other brands may not be able to satisfy their needs in efficient manner. In other words brand provides them feeling of value for money where amount invested in purchasing product is recovered easily and consumers receive greater return.

For every company across the industry importance of developing strong brand is rising at faster pace as it assists in marketing communication and delivers a kind of promise to the customers (Macdonald, 2014). Main objective of every entity is to increase its market share and profitability by satisfying need of its customers in efficient manner so brand provides base for the same.

According to Horan (2009) Brand loyal customers support firm to deal with the challenges present in the business environment as the market where company carries out its operations is full of challenges so sometimes it is not possible to deal with such hurdles as they can also lead to decline in profitability level of the organization. Furthermore in the external environment various challenges are present that directly leads to decline in efficiency level of the firm.

So powerful brand with loyal customers can definitely support enterprise to deal with the hurdles adversely affecting organization. On the other hand recession is prevailing in the entire market due to which sales and profitability level of company is declining so in this case brand loyal customers support firm and keeps on buying products from the preferred brand (Elliott, Elliott and Percy, 2007).  Presently firms have started to take initiative in maintaining its brand so that loyal customers can be retained easily for example many companies have recalled their products in the market due to some manufacturing defect or in case if customers are not satisfied with it. Brand loyalty leads to sustainable and long term business success.

Further mouth to mouth publicity of brand loyal customers is also very effective which company like Pepsi and Coca Cola enjoys due to which management has to apply lesser efforts in development of marketing strategies for attracting customers (Lin, 2012). In short brand loyal customers are beneficial for the business enterprise and support s to survive in the market where level of competition is very high.

It is also regarded as the indicator of intangible value as well as quantifiable measurement of success of brand in the market and predictions for future performance can be done easily. Organization can easily obtain idea in relation with its future sustainability in the market if presently all its customers are loyal towards the products and services. As per view of Sharp (2010) emotional involvement is regarded as the most powerful thing due to which it is required for  well known brand to involve its  customers emotionally so as to gain their trust and confidence.

Many companies have started loyalty programs so that its customers can be easily indulged into the activities of repeat purchase and supports in improving overall performance in the market (Kapferer, 2008).

Loyalty towards a particular brand is regarded as multidimensional construct and is determined by various distinct psychological process such as perceived value of target market, brand trust, repeat purchase behavior etc. According to Wood (2014) customers purchase portfolio of brand but due to availability of more substitutes it has become difficult for companies to encourage customers to become brand loyal like in soft drink market firm like Pepsi, Coca Cola sells soft drink and products are substitute of each other so it acts as hurdle for the organization.

Furthermore with the help of promotion and loyalty programs it is possible to build brand loyalty in short period of time. Whereas offering target market additional benefits such as incentive or prizes are effective and this has positive impact on the brand image of customers as other firms may not be offering benefits like this in the market. It has been analyzed that people are attracted towards commodities that provides monetary benefits so this factor must be necessarily considered by firm (Shimp, 2006).

Brand loyal customers are regarded as the foundation of the business organization. Furthermore it is well known fact that loyalty leads to decline in expenditure level as such type of customers helps in promoting products worldwide and no effective tool is  required to be adopted for sharing product information with target market.

On the other hand when brand loyalty increases then customers prefer to less respond towards the competitive moves and may always appraise brand in the market. As per view of So, Parsons and Yap (2013) in order to develop brand loyalty it is necessary to understand about the niche market so as to know about their taste and preference in appropriate manner.

Furthermore it provides base to the company at the time of launching new product in the market as brand loyal customers are those who try the commodity launched for first time and increases sales volume. Whereas firm can easily expand its operations in the new market due to presence of proper support of customers. True brand loyalty can be easily seen in different markets where loyal customers of the enterprise have the brand’s logo tattooed onto their bodies.

So this can be considered as the biggest example of brand loyal customers and provides ample of opportunities to firm (El-Gohary and Hatem., 2012).  Brand loyalty is much easier to be maintained in the present era when firm keeps timely check on the product quality and other factors that are considered before purchasing product. On the other hand brand loyalty is regarded as less risky as compared with customer loyalty and lesser efforts are applied to maintain it for longer period of time.

Furthermore brand loyal customers tend to purchase product frequently and are not at all influenced by the promotional strategies developed by competitors of the organization. It plays significant role for  the business as through loyalty firm can easily become leader in the market where lot of challenges have to be faced during carrying out operations.

According to Mann and Kaur (2013) brand loyalty is regarded as the tendency of customers to purchase products on continuous basis of one brand over another in the market. Further behavior pattern of consumers directly represents that they will prefer to buy products from a company that has fostered a trusting relationship.

In short it is beneficial for the business enterprise and provides ample of opportunities as it leads to repeat purchase by target market higher revenue and rise in market share. Main benefit of having brand loyal customers is that it can support enterprise in pushing a business past its competitors and assists in gaining competitive advantage which is necessarily required to sustain in the marketplace (Dibb and Simkin, 2007).        

However Palumbo and Herbig (2000) argued that true brand loyalty can be seen when customers prefer to pay higher price for the brand and this is beneficial for the business enterprise in every possible manner. Many advantages are derived from loyal customers one of them is positive word of mouth publicity which is considered to be very effective as it brings new customers to the company and leads to stronger customer base.

Further strong brands can easily provide feeling of customer satisfaction and value for money and firms can easily grab large number of customers for life time. In short it focuses on the overall development of the enterprise and areas can be improved where performance of company is not up to the mark (Barker and et. Al, 2011).

As per view of Munthree, Bick and Abratt (2006) basically brand loyalty has three degrees which takes into consideration recognition, preference and insistence. Recognition is linked with awareness of brand name where customers realize that brand is an alternative to purchase.

Brand preference is stronger as compared with recognition as customers prefer to buy product of one brand as compared with other. But in case if particular brand is not present in the market then individual prefers to buy substitute products. The last degree is regarded as most important as consumer insist on particular brand and does not prefer to buy substitute products offered by other companies in the market. This three degree provides clear idea about brand loyalty and provides idea to the firm about its overall position in the market (Franzen and Moriarty, 2008).

2.5 Brand loyalty strategies

In the modern era every company has started to develop effective brand loyalty strategies through which it becomes easy to retain loyal customers for lifetime and increases business performance.  As per view of Vaidyanathan and  Aggarwal (2000) reward system is considered as one of the  most effective way to build brand loyalty as they encourage customers to repurchase products due to monetary benefits provided.

Customers are given reward for purchasing products such as discount and other offers such as buy one get one free. Generally to attract consumers towards the product company has to understand their behavior (Kumar, 2008). Howard Sheth model is regarded as effective in understanding about consumer behavior where three levels of decision making are shown where in first stage named extensive problem solving where buyer has little information about the brand, limited problem solving is the next stage where consumer well knows about the brand that  can satisfy need and routinized response behavior is the last level where buyers have well defined criteria but little confusion is present whether brand will be able to satisfy need or not.

Furthermore there are four components involved in relation with the brand choice behavior which are input variable, hypothetical constructs, output variables and exogenous variable (Saxena, 2009). In input variable consumer considers attributes of brand such as price, quality and availability. Such type of information directly influences purchase behavior and in case if all the attributes are in favor of consumer then it leads to brand loyalty.

Hypothetical constructs is next component which is segregated into two parts namely perceptual and learning constructs where first one deals with the way individual perceives and responds to the information from input variable and second one is linked with stages from the buyer motives to his satisfaction in the buying condition. Output variable is next component which is related to buyer’s response to stimulus inputs where actual purchase takes place.

Exogenous variable considers personality traits, financial status etc that are important in the entire process. So the entire process helps in understanding about purchase behavior and leads to brand loyalty (Wood, 2014).

According to Schuh (2007) brand experience is also one of the effective strategy through which customers are encouraged to become brand loyal. Companies have started to offer incredible opportunity to create brand experience with the help of social media where firms have developed communities and customers are asked to join them so that they can share experiences with other after using the product.

So this is effective enough to increase satisfaction level of customers and overall performance of enterprise in the market (Palumbo and  Herbig, 2000).  Value proposition is another strategy that supports in building brand strategy where unique attributes such as quality, price of product is highlighted in front of customers so that they can know product which they are purchasing provides value for money. Promotional strategies are necessarily required for brand loyalty as with the help of this customer can be attracted and they can ensure that no other brand is providing benefits in the market.

However Leiser (2004) argued that by taking feedback from customers on continuous basis it is possible for enterprise to attract its target market as firm can easily make modifications in the product by considering the need and preference of its customers. Social networking sites are effective enough in taking feedback from buyers and increase their satisfaction level.

Management has to ensure that quality of its products are kept high and well maintained every time as brand loyal customers does not care for price and focuses on the quality from the marketplace. Through this customers who are not brand loyal can also be attracted like in soft drink market companies such as Coca Cola, Pepsi have well maintained quality of its soft drinks due to which sales volume is quite high (Jeudi, 2012).

Customer engagement is also effective method used by firms where entity adopts method to engage with its customers on regular basis. With the help of this customers are provided up to date and important information such as modification in product, price etc. According to Martensen (2007) providing buyers reason to come back is regarded as best way to retain customers and in turn helps to gain competitive advantage.

Activity such as reward program and non monetary benefits encourage customers to buy product from specific brand instead of purchasing from competitors prevailing in the market. Some organizations show appreciation for the product purchased by using words such as Happy Birthday, Happy holidays etc through which they feel special and prefers to become brand loyal.

All these strategies directly provides ample of opportunities to the business enterprise and increases capability to face challenges present in the business environment. By keeping an eye on competitors brand loyalty strategies it is possible for firm to develop more effective strategies and supports in every possible manner (Schuh, 2007).

Furthermore it is required for companies for set prices keeping in view the purchasing power of customers as in case if it is kept very high then no customer can be attracted towards it and leads to decline in profitability level. Price is regarded as the most important factor that affects purchase behavior so after carrying out market analysis prices must be set so that customers can get reason for purchasing the product.        

2.6 Conceptual Framework

Brand loyalty

Factors affecting brand loyalty

·         Product

·         Price

·         Place

·         Promotion

Advantages of brand loyalty:

·         Repeat purchase

·         Increase in sales volume

·         Positive mouth to mouth publicity

·         Strong customer base

 

Brand loyalty strategies

·         Reward program

·         Customer engagement

·         Brand Experience

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

It is the third chapter of the dissertation that provides clear idea about the techniques adopted for carrying out the research in appropriate manner. It covers key areas such as research design, philosophy, sampling, data analysis, data collection, research type etc (Kothari, 2004).

On the basis of this chapter reader can obtain idea regarding the type of study and overall technique employed to reach towards a valid conclusion. Every part in the research methodology has its own importance such as data collection that supports in knowing the respondents from whom information has been collected, sampling is linked with the sample size chosen, data analysis involves techniques employed for obtaining findings etc.

The main purpose of the methodology chapter is to give an experienced investigator enough data in order to replicate the study. It is the key part of the dissertation as it describes the broad philosophical underpinning to the adopted research methods considering the technique adopted for analyzing data.  

3.2 Research philosophy

Research philosophy is a belief which is linked with the way in which information about a phenomenon can be gathered, analyzed and used. It directly represents the important assumptions of investigator and they act as base for research strategy. Research philosophy directly develops the relationship between data collection and knowledge process in research. This comprises wide range of philosophical approach that is linked with the research (Kumar, 2010).

In other words it can be defined as the function of how researcher thinks about the development of knowledge. It is regarded as the combination of two ideas that are linked with the nature of world and function of the researcher. Research philosophy directly supports researcher in carrying out the research in effective manner and overall results can be attained easily as expected by researcher before carrying out the research. Two types of research philosophy is present namely positivism and interpretivism.

Positivism research philosophy is based on the belief that reality is stable and can be observed from objective viewpoint. It is linked with epistemology and can be regarded as the philosophy of knowing. It adheres to the view that only factual knowledge gained through the observation.

Furthermore, in positivism philosophy role of researcher is limited to data collection and interpretation is done with the help of objective approach. Further, the findings derived from carrying out the study are quantifiable and observable (Pring, 2014). Positivism philosophy totally relies on quantifiable observation that leads to statistical analysis. It is in accordance with the empiricist view that knowledge stems from human experience.

This philosophy claims that single, objective reality that can be observed without bias with the help of standardized instruments. Goal is considered as a universal truth which is always truth until specific condition holds. Furthermore, in this type of philosophy researcher acts as neutral recorder. The progress of the research is evaluated by measuring how findings of the different studies match with one another.

On the other hand interpretivism research philosophy considers researcher to interpret the element of the research and directly integrates human interest into the study. Furthermore, this philosophy is based on the belief that access to reality is only with the help of social constructions which includes shared meaning, language and instruments. It relies on the critique of positivism in social sciences (Dawson, 2002).

It is linked with the philosophical position of idealism and is used to group together diverse approaches considering social constructionism and phenomenology. It focuses on the meaning and different techniques are considered to reflect various aspects of the issue.

For carrying out the present study positivism research philosophy has been used where role of investigator is only limited to data collection. In this type of approach data is analyzed quantitatively with the help of statistical tools.

Furthermore, by employing this type of philosophy reality can be easily determined and it can be known whether customers are brand loyal towards the products of Coca Cola or not. Main reason behind not selecting interpretive approach is that it tries to uncover truth and access to reality is only possible through social construction. So through this, it can be said that by adopting positivism philosophy appropriate findings can be derived easily keeping in view overall aims and objectives of the research.

Therefore, this is the main reason due to which positivism research philosophy is regarded as appropriate for the present study where it is possible to determine reality easily and in turn accurate results can be derived easily.

3.3 Research approach   

Research approach refers to the plan and procedures for study that spans the steps from broad assumptions to detailed methods of analysis, data collection and interpretation. It takes into consideration taking several decisions so that research can be carried out in appropriate method (Kuada, 2012). Research approach provides base to the study and assists in attaining accurate findings as expected by researcher.  Two type of research approaches are present namely inductive and deductive.

In inductive approach entire study begins when researcher collects data that is relevant for the study. Further, when data is collected then investigator takes a breather from data collection. In this stage patterns in the data are searched that are useful in developing theory that can explain the patterns. In this type of approach research starts with a set of observation and results move from specific to general.

It is directly linked with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. Main aim is to explore new phenomena or in many cases previously researched phenomena are considered. This type of approach is linked with qualitative research and depends on the key findings in the literature review. But it is not easy for researcher to select which approach to be used for the study as it directly depends on purpose of the research and other methods employed to test hypothesis (Hussain, 2011).   

On the other hand deductive approach is linked with the development of hypothesis which is based on the existing theory and research strategy is designed in order to test the hypothesis. This type of approach can be explained by the means of hypothesis which can be derived from the proposition of the theory. In short this type of approach is linked with deducting conclusion from the premises.

Deductive approach starts with an expected pattern that is tested against the observation and seeks to find a pattern with them. Results flow from specific to general and start with development of theory and ends with confirmation (Scruggs and  Mastropieri, 2006). This approach explores a new theory rather than developing new one and directly follows the path of logic. Furthermore the reasoning starts with the development of theory and directly leads to new hypothesis.

For carrying out the present study both approaches have been chosen where results move from specific to general and vice versa. Through both the approaches findings can be derived easily and in turn brand loyalty of Coca cola can be known easily. Furthermore, findings of the research are beneficial for entire soft drink market and other companies can adopt effective strategies so as to increase brand loyalty in the market.

With the help of deductive approach researcher has derived conclusion from the premises. Further, in inductive approach, entire study has been carried out from the findings derived from the literature review. Therefore, both the research approaches such as inductive and deductive are appropriate where findings of the study linked with brand loyalty of Coca Cola in UK can be used by other soft drink companies which means specific to generalized results and vice versa.

3.4 Research Design

Research design is the blueprint of the research and is regarded as the framework that has been developed in order to obtain answers to the research questions. It provides idea to the reader in relation with the techniques adopted for carrying out the research. In short it provides direction to the entire study and systematizes the research (Bhattacharyya, 2006). Different types of research design are present such as descriptive, correlational, semi experimental, experimental, review and Meta analytic.

  • Descriptive: This type of research design attempts to describe and explains certain conditions of the present by using questionnaires and many subjects in order to describe a basic phenomena. With the help of this research design detailed description of the study can be easily determined and supports in in-depth analysis which is beneficial for the research. In this type of research design information is collected without changing the environment.
  • It takes into consideration one time interaction with certain group of people and interaction of researcher takes place with the help of survey or questionnaire being developed (Ravindran, 2008). On the other hand descriptive study where researcher does not interact with participant is observation study of people in an environment and data is collected with the help of existing records. Furthermore, there are three effective ways present through which descriptive study can be carried out and it includes case study, survey and observational.
  • Experimental: This type of research design is systematic and scientific approach in which researcher manipulates one or more variable and directly supports in measuring any change in variable. Experimental design is used when there is time priority in a casual relationship. Further, main objective is to explore new ideas for the study which are beneficial for whom researcher is being carried out (, 2007).
  • In short experiments are being carried out in order to predict phenomenon and are beneficial to explain some kind of causation. The main strength of this research design is high level of certainty with which alteration in the outcome of interest can be attributed to the independent variable.
  • Correlation: This type of research design helps in identifying whether or not two variables are correlated. In short it shows that whether increase or decrease in one variable can affect another. Three type of correlation are present such as positive, negative and no correlation. Positive correlation states that when one variable increase then it also increases another and decrease in one leads to another. Negative correlation takes place when increase in one variable leads to decrease in another (Silva, 2012).
  • Semi- experimental: It is also regarded as Quasi experimental design in form on experimental research which is used most commonly in social sciences. It resembles quantitative and qualitative experiments. Furthermore, semi experimental design takes into consideration selection of groups upon which a variable is tested without any random pre selection processes. Main benefit of using this design is that it supports in pre selection and randomization of group when it is difficult and assist in gaining accurate results (Khanzode, 2004).

For carrying out the present study descriptive research design has been taken into consideration through which full description of the topic being chosen has been provided. This research design has supported in in-depth analysis and in turn appropriate findings can be attained easily as expected by the investigator before carrying out the research. Reader can easily understand the brand loyalty of Coca Cola in the market and effective strategies employed by the firm so as to retain its valuable customers.

Through this design the topic being chosen can be understood better and overall aims and objectives being developed for the research. On the other hand other research design such as experimental is not appropriate for the study where main stress is on exploring new ideas from carrying out the research and in present study no new ideas can be generated as brand loyalty can be easily known through descriptive analysis.

All the research questions being developed have been answered in appropriate manner and have benefitted the entire research. This research design assists in gathering quantifiable information that can be used for statistical interference on the target audience with the help of data analysis.

3.5 Sampling     

Sampling plays most important role in the research and is regarded as the process of selecting units from population so that appropriate results can be attained easily keeping in view overall aims and objectives of the research. In every study it is required to adopt appropriate sample size with the help of suitable technique so that information can be easily obtained from them for conducting the study.

It supports in identifying the characteristics of relatively small number of items from a relatively large population (Singh, 2006). The target population is the total group of individual from which the sample is drawn. In every research it is not necessary that same sample size is being considered and it directly depends on the type of study. Mainly two types of sampling techniques are present namely probability and non probability where former is adopted when every unit in the population has equal chance of being selected and in later one some elements present in the population have no chances of being selected and elements are selected on the basis of assumption.

Probability sampling takes into consideration various techniques which are as follows:

  • Random sampling: In this type of sampling technique entire target population has equal chances of being selection from the set of elements. Random sampling requires a way of naming or numbering the target population and then raffle methods are considered to choose the respondent from the sample size. Main advantage of adopting random sampling is that sample represents the entire target population and supports in elimination sampling bias (Novikov and Novikov, 2013).
  • Any given pair of element has equal chances of being selected. So this directly reduces bias and simplifies analysis of result. On the other hand variance between individual outcomes within the sample directly shows variance in the overall population. Many time it is possible that sample random sampling is vulnerable to sampling error as the randomness of the selection may lead in a sample that does not highlight the makeup of the population
  • Systematic sampling: This type of sampling technique is linked with the technique of arranging population according to some ordering scheme and after this element is selected at regular interval with the help of ordered list (Dawson, 2002).
  • It takes into consideration random start and proceeds with selection of every Kth element. In short systematic sampling is regarded as type of probability sampling and is easy to be used in various types of studies. But main disadvantage of using this sampling technique is that its theoretical properties make it difficult to quantify the accuracy.
  • Stratified sampling: In this type of sampling technique population is divided into smaller groups which are regarded as strata. In stratified technique strata are developed and they directly rely on the attributes and characteristic of the members. This type of sampling technique is considered to be more effective as compared with random sampling as it is possible to reduce sample size in order to derive effective conclusion (Fillis, 2007).
  • In short it is possible to increase the precision with the same sample size available. In every research it depends on investigator whether to choose proportional stratified sample or disproportional one, as former one is related with the size of each stratum in proportionate to the size of startum in the population whereas in later one size of each startum is not proportional to size of the population.
  • Cluster sampling: This type of sampling technique is considered to be cost effective as compared with other methods as it is convenient to select respondents in group. Sampling is always done on the basis of geography and directly supports in reducing the travel and administrative cost.
  • Furthermore cluster can be chosen from cluster level frame developed only for the selected cluster (Dey, 2002). Cluster sampling directly increases the variability of the sample that is estimated above simple random sampling
  • Quota sampling: In this type of sampling technique population is segmented into mutually exclusive sub groups like in stratified sampling. Furthermore, decision is taken in relation with the selection of units from each segment based on specific proportion. In this technique selection of sample is non random (Munkejord, 2009).   
  • Accidental sampling: This type of sampling technique is also regarded as opportunity, convenience or grab and is regarded as non probability sampling which considers the sample being drawn from the part of population being selected. Main reason behind selecting specific population is that it is readily available and convenient too.
  • Researcher that adopts accidental sampling cannot scientifically make generalizations linked with the total population (Downey, Hamilton and   Catterall, 2007).
  • Judgement sampling: It is a type of non probability sampling method and takes place when all the elements selected for the study are chosen through the judgement of researcher. In this technique investigator believes that representative sample can be acquired with the help of sound judgement and this directly assist in saving time and cost (Weller and Gulick, 2014). Effectiveness of judgement sampling increases only when limited number of people can serve as primary data due to overall aims and objectives of research and nature of research design.

For carrying out the present study sample size of 100 customers of Coca cola has been adopted and random sampling has been used in order to collect information from the customers of the firm. Through this type of sampling technique respondents have been selected randomly where every customer has equal chances of being selected.

On the other hand, basic reason behind not selecting cluster and judgment sampling is that former one is based on selection of respondents on the basis of geography and later one is linked with selection of respondents on the basis of judgment of researcher. Furthermore the sample size of 100 customers being adopted is suitable for the study as they can provide accurate information in order to assess brand loyalty of the firm in the market.

Main reason behind considering customers of Coca cola in sampling is that they can provide suitable information linked with brand loyalty and other type of information such as factors affecting brand loyalty etc. Therefore, it is the basic reason behind adoption of existing customers of Coca cola as sample as they can support in accomplishment of aims and objectives of the research.

On the other hand 5 managers working at top level have been considered for the study and information has been acquired from them through adoption of judgmental sampling where all the elements are chosen with the help of judgment done by investigator. Top level official of Coca cola can easily provide appropriate information which is beneficial for the entire study and can increase overall effectiveness. Furthermore, researcher can easily know brand loyalty strategies of company by interacting with managers of the firm.  

By adopting appropriate sample size it is possible to increase effectiveness of the results and supports in gaining accurate findings. Both the sampling techniques are appropriate for the sample size being chosen by the researcher such as customers and managers of Coca Cola.     

3.6 Data collection  

Data collection plays significant role in the study where researcher collects information from the sources available and in turn helps to attain accurate findings. In short data collection is regarded as one of the toughest task which need proper hard work, planning, patience so that information can be obtained which is beneficial for the entire study. It starts with determination of what kind of information required followed by the selection of sample from certain population (Hansen, 2011).

Furthermore, it is identified which instrument is appropriate to collect information from the selected sample. In case precautions are not taken in advance in collection of data then it can adversely affect reliability and validity of the study which is being carried out. Whereas the selection of information directly depends on the research problem, design and data gathered linked with the variables.

Different methods are present that are used for collecting data and vary from each other on the basis of structure, obtrusiveness and quantifiability. Two sources of data collection are present namely primary and secondary from where research can obtain information in order to accomplish the overall aims and objectives of the research.  

Primary source is also regarded as raw data where information is collected from the original source and is not used in previous studies (Garland and  Garland, 2012). Data collected directly increases the reliability of the study as information is obtained from the respondents selected. Main advantage of using primary source in the study is that researcher collects specific information which is linked with the overall problem, data collected is of high quality and it is also possible to obtain additional data if required in the research. But on the other  there are some disadvantage of collecting information from the primary source which includes it is difficult to ensure that data collected is of high standard, ethical consideration adversely affects entire research and sometime cost of obtaining information is very high which acts as obstacle in front of researcher.

On the other hand secondary data is the information gathered from secondary sources such as books, journals, online articles etc (Guercini, 2014). This type of data is published in past and is used in various other studies carried out by other researchers. It is necessary for researcher to ensure information collected from secondary source is reliable and valid so that it may not affect findings derived.  

For carrying out the present study both primary and secondary sources have been considered with the main objective to collect information. Primary data has been collected with the help of structured questionnaire being designed so as to obtain information from customers of Coca Cola. A well structured and pre-defined questionnaire has been designed with the main objective to assess brand loyalty of Coca Cola in the market.

Further, questionnaire has been designed keeping in view all the factors affecting brand loyalty that have been assessed in the literature review of the study. The questionnaire includes various questions relating to factors affecting brand loyalty and effectiveness of the same. Furthermore, the questionnaire has been developed based on the Black Box Model (refer chapter-2).

The reason for selecting questions based on this model is that traditional theories on consumer buying behavior are the basis for marketing strategies for contemporary organizations. On the other hand, information has been collected from managers through personal interview so as to know brand loyalty strategies employed by the firm and it can be known whether they are effective or not.

Furthermore, to collect secondary information various books, journals and online articles have been referred so that reliable data can be collected in order to reach towards valid conclusion. Through both these sources Coca Cola’s brand loyalty can be determined by considering the response of customers and managers.

3.7 Data Analysis    

Data analysis plays most crucial role in the study as through analysis of information gathered findings can be derived easily. It is regarded as the systematic process of applying statistical and other techniques in order to attain findings (Hiller, 2010). Different analytic procedures provide a way of drawing inductive inferences from information and distinguishes signal from the noise being present in the study.

Basically two techniques are present namely qualitative and quantitative with the help of which data is analyzed and adoption of specific technique basically depends on the type of study and its nature.

In qualitative technique main aim is to carry out complete description and directly allows researcher for fine distinction to be drawn as it is required to shoehorn the information into a finite number of classifications. In this type of technique different themes are formed in order to analyze data and directly show the response given by overall respondents in the study (Banister and Booth, 2005).

Thematic analysis is most commonly adopted when research is of qualitative nature and main advantage of adopting this method is that it supports in in-depth analysis and accurate findings can be obtained easily. On the other hand main disadvantage of adopting qualitative approach is that findings cannot be extended to wide population with same degree of certainty that is present in case of quantitative research.

On the other hand in quantitative data analysis technique statistical tools are adopted for carrying out the research in more efficient manner. In this type of method features are classified, counted and statistical tools are being employed in order to explain what has been observed from the information gathered (Morales and Ladhari, 2011).

Furthermore, through this type of technique researcher can easily discover phenomena that are likely to have impact on the behavior. In short quantitative technique directly increases validity of the research and expected outcomes can be derived easily. Apart from this it  is  quite easy to know the basic difference in consumer behavior     

For carrying out the present study both qualitative and quantitative techniques have been employed in order to carry out the study in appropriate manner. In qualitative technique different themes have been formed on the basis of response provided by the customers and managers of Coca cola.

Through all the themes formed it is possible to identify brand loyalty of the firm in the market. On the other hand in quantitative method SPSS software has been employed for analyzing the information gathered from the respondents.  So through this it can be said that both the techniques adopted for data analysis are effective and overall aims and objectives set for the study can be accomplished easily.

3.8 Ethical consideration

Ethics plays significant role in the study and it directly assists in increasing the validity of research. Research ethics takes into consideration application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics such as research etc. It involves design and implementation of research involving human experimentation and different aspects of academic scandal, scientific misconduct such as plagiarism, fraud etc (Gilmore, 2010).

In short the academic research being carried out is built on foundation of trust and society believes that outcome of the research directly shows hard work done by investigator and content has not been copied from anywhere.

Furthermore, many ethical issues are present that are taken into consideration at the time of carrying out study such as researcher must be aware of having the duty to secure the actual permission and  interest of all the parties  that are involved in the study.

They must not use any type of information obtained and it is necessarily required to maintain moral responsibility in favor of the respondents (Gorman, 2011). It is the duty of investigator to safeguard the right of the respondents as well as their privacy and sensitivity. Confidentiality must be kept so that important information acquired cannot be obtained by other party who can take undue advantage of it.

Further it is the duty of researcher to highlight main aims and objectives of the study in front of respondents and participants so that they can know about the entire study (Amaratunga and et. Al,  2002). On the other hand any time of information must not be kept secret in front of respondents that are significant for the study.  So these are some of the ethical issues faced by researcher at the time of carrying out study.

In the present study investigator faced many issues that has affected overall efficiency. Information has been collected from customers of Coca cola so it is possible that target market of the firm may not provide right information which is significant for the study.

So this issue affects entire research as wrong information can directly affect overall results of the study and it is not under control of researcher. Furthermore data has been gathered from managers of Coca cola so they may not be interested in sharing confidential information of the company which also acted as hurdle in carrying out the research. So these are the major ethical issues faced by researcher and has affected overall results being obtained. 

3.9 Accessibility issue

Accessibility can be regarded as attainable or obtainable and is considered as an issue in the research (Haynes, 2006). In the present study researcher has obtained information from managers of Coca Cola working at top level but it is not possible to access data from other top officials of company as firm like Coca cola is multinational enterprise and other individuals from outside are not allowed to interact with top official and employees working in organization.

So this directly acted as hurdle in carrying out the study as only 5 managers working in Coca Cola agreed to give response in relation with the brand loyalty strategies of firm and other information which is crucial for the study. Furthermore, for carrying out the research various websites were referred which require authentication, password and payment also so this is also one of the issue that hampered the entire research.

3.10 Research limitations  

Research limitations refer to the influences that are not in control of the researcher. They are regarded as the shortcoming, conditions that are not controlled by the investigator and acts as restriction on the conclusion derived (Grant, 2001). Furthermore, in every study limitations are present that affected entire studies are mentioned so that readers may know about it. It is well known fact that no study is free from biasness in spite of various precautions taken in advance by researcher.

In the present study researcher faced many limitations where time was one of the major limitation affected study as crucial information was acquired from managers of Coca Cola working at top level and they may not have time for sharing important information with researcher.

Furthermore, without such data it is not possible to carry out study in appropriate manner. Whereas it is well known fact that Coca Cola is multinational organization and serves millions of customers worldwide but in the present study 100 customers of company has been chosen as sample size so they does not possess capability to represent entire population and this may directly deviate actual results from the expected one.

Further, by choosing 100 customers of specific country it is not possible to determine the brand loyalty. To carry out the study only customers of Coca Cola has been chosen but information can also be obtained from customers of other firm such as Pepsi which is major competitor of Coca Cola.

So through this it may be possible to recommend more effective brand loyalty strategies to Coca Cola by considering the response of customers of other companies.  So in this way these are some of the limitations faced by the researcher at the time of carrying out present study and in turn prevents from accomplishing the overall aims and objectives being set by investigator for the research.  

CHAPTER-4: DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the empirical data has been analyzed using various statistical tools and techniques. For carrying out the study data is collected from primary source so in this chapter the information obtained is analyzed so that aims and objectives of research can be attained easily.

It assists readers in understanding the techniques used for analyzing data such as quantitative and qualitative. In the present study both techniques have been employed so as to get expected results. Furthermore, the interpretation of results and discussion on the same has also been included in this study to reach desired outcomes. In addition to this, results of primary results have been cross checked with secondary research results to predict reliability and validity of this study.

4.2 Analysis of demographic section

In present study, the questionnaire for primary research was divided in two major parts including general section and demographic section. In this research, however, demographic section was not directly linked to the objectives but it is essential to consider for providing recommendations to target audience.

Further, chi square test in this study also aims at identifying the reason for difference in the views (if any). Demographic characteristics are related to population/sample characteristics which provide an idea regarding the distribution of sample based on certain identified characteristics like age, gender, social class etc.

Table-1: Demographic frequencies

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Age

Less than 20 years

38

38.0

38.0

20-30 years

49

49.0

87.0

30-40 years

7

7.0

94.0

40-50 years

5

5.0

99.0

More than 50 years

1

1.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Gender

Male

58

58.0

58.0

Female

42

42.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Social class

Lower class

20

20.0

20.0

Middle class

67

67.0

87.0

Upper class

13

13.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Frequency of purchase

Everyday

11

11.0

11.0

2-4 times in a week

28

28.0

39.0

Once in a week

21

21.0

60.0

Once in a month

20

20.0

80.0

Only on occasions

20

20.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

 

Interpretation

In the above table, frequency wise distribution of demographic characteristics of respondents has been shown. Most of the respondents were found within the age group of 20-30 years and 38 respondents were from age group of less than 20 years.

It shows that a cumulative percentage of 87% of total respondents were adults up to the age of 30 years. Also, respondents from age group of 30-40 years and 40-50 years were found to be very less being 7 and 5 respectively out of total 100 respondents.

Only 1 respondent was observed beyond the age of 50 years. It has been observed that ratio of males to females was found nearly to 1. There was no significant variation in respondents based on gender. In terms of social class, highest respondents were found from middle class background totaling 67 out of 100. Respondents belonging to lower class and upper class were almost similar i.e. 20% and 13% respectively.

Frequency of purchase by the respondents was found to be alike. 11% respondents claim to purchase the soft drink on a daily basis while 28% consented to buy 2-4 times in a week. Remaining respondents secured an equal share in the three categories of once in a week, once in a month and only on occasions.

Table-2: Frequency table

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Does the brand have good functional quality?

Yes

80

80.0

80.0

No

20

20.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Is coke brand is always available in right condition i.e. temperature etc?

Yes

66

66.0

66.0

No

34

34.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

 

Interpretation

In the above table, frequency and cumulative percentage of responses have been shown regarding the suitability and preference of brand. From the above analysis, it can be interpreted that more than 3/4th of total research participants were found to be satisfied with the good functional quality of the brand among various age groups and different categories. But, remaining 20 respondents disagreed at the fact that brand carries a good functional quality.

From the survey conducted, it was revealed that a remarkable number of respondents did not get the drink in right condition i.e. rightly chilled and in a cooler condition when required. A total of 66 respondents out of 100 agreed that coke was available in an acceptable condition in the market whenever they approached to purchase the same. However, 34 respondents were not satisfied with the maintenance of temperature of coke at all the times which makes a significant percentage on a negative side for the consideration of the marketers of the brand.

4.3 Cross frequency and chi square analysis

Cross frequency is a simple statistical tool which demonstrates the responses under the categories of another variable. Generally, it is identified by assessing frequencies of a particular statement corresponding to selected demographic groups.

In this manuscript, cross frequency analysis has been selected because it is a simple approach to outline the underlying meaning of different sets of data. Furthermore, chi square test has also been applied which seeks to analyze the frequencies for different groups and test the significant difference in the same so that results can be scientifically tested for appropriate conclusions.

Table-3: Cross frequency table

Frequency of buying

I always insist on Coca cola and cannot take any other optional brand (truly loyal)

Total

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Everyday

2

2

3

1

3

11

2-4 times in a week

6

5

7

4

6

28

Once in a week

3

4

5

2

7

21

Once in a month

1

4

3

5

7

20

Only on occasions

7

4

4

0

5

20

 

19

19

22

12

28

100

Table-4: Chi square analysis

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

12.490a

16

.710

Likelihood Ratio

14.611

16

.553

Linear-by-Linear Association

.069

1

.793

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

The main objective of this study was to identify brand loyalty of customers of Coca-cola so that appropriate results can be obtained. The above table (refer table 3) demonstrates that loyalty of the customers across selected groups identified on the basis of their frequency of consumption of Coca cola drinks.

The table shows that there were few people who were truly loyal to the brand. Similarly, the people who were very frequent in purchasing activities were also almost equal to those who were agreeing to the statement that they were truly loyal to the brand. In order to identify the difference in the views across selected groups, chi square test was also applied which is presented in table 4.

The above chi square table shows that at 16 degree of freedom, the calculated chi square value was 12.490 whereas the tabular chi square value was near about 26. As tabular value is greater than calculated value therefore, it can be stated that the responses regarding the brand loyalty was not significantly different across selected groups identified. Thus, from the above discussion, it can be said that the difference in the frequencies was just a matter of chance.

Table-5: Cross frequency table

Frequency of buying

I purchase Coca cola drinks regularly and I have no other option (Spuriously loyal)

Total

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Everyday

2

1

4

2

2

11

2-4 times in a week

8

4

5

6

5

28

Once in a week

4

2

7

7

1

21

Once in a month

2

6

3

5

4

20

Only on occasions

5

1

3

5

6

20

 

21

14

22

25

18

100

Table-6: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

15.442a

16

.493

Likelihood Ratio

15.521

16

.487

Linear-by-Linear Association

.809

1

.368

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

 Interpretation

The table mentioned above shows the frequencies and respective cumulative percentage of frequencies regarding the statement that customers purchased Coca cola drinks regularly as they had no other option. The results revealed that the number of respondents who agreed to this statement were significantly less in the number from those who were not agreeing to this statement. However, the results might not differ because of any reason therefore; chi square test was applied here.

A chi square test is a statistical test which is often denoted as x2 and generally applied on wide range of data. In this context, table 6 demonstrates calculated chi square value at 16 degree of freedom. In this test, the results are tested by comparing tabular and calculated chi square value.

The tabular value of chi square at 16 degree of freedom and 5% level of significance was 26.296 (refer appendix 2). Thus, from this comparison, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in the views of respondents. Thus, brand loyalty of customers cannot be predicted by their frequency of purchase. In this case, it will not be wrong to say that customers may consume more than one drink at a time or at different frequencies of purchase therefore, brand loyalty of Coca cola’s customers cannot be predicted by analyzing their frequency of purchase.

Table-7: Cross frequency table

Frequency of buying

I do not stick only on Coca cola and I shift one brand to another (Brand switcher)

Total

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Everyday

2

2

1

3

3

11

2-4 times in a week

8

3

4

10

3

28

Once in a week

6

4

4

3

4

21

Once in a month

4

1

4

6

5

20

Only on occasions

6

2

5

5

2

20

 

26

12

18

27

17

100

Table-8: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

9.082a

16

.910

Likelihood Ratio

9.432

16

.895

Linear-by-Linear Association

.089

1

.765

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

Table 7 and 8 demonstrate the distribution of responses based on the identified groups based on frequencies of purchase of Coca cola customers. The reason for identifying the cross frequencies between the loyalty and frequencies of the purchase is that it is a common belief that customers buy more are likely to become loyal customers of a brand.

But, here statistical approach has been adopted to state the results. Table 7 shows that significant number of customers of Coca cola was found brand switchers. In this regard, it is important to discuss that this may be because of intense competition in beverage industry of United Kingdom. However, for this, chi square analysis was also applied, results of which are shown in table 8.

In this case also, by comparison of tabular and calculated value, it was found that there was no significant difference in the views of the customers of being brand switcher across selected groups based on the frequency of purchase of Coca cola drinks by its customers.

Table-9: Cross frequency table

Frequency of buying

I am not rigid for purchasing any specific brand as I can take any soft drink  (Indifferent buyer)

Total

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Everyday

2

1

2

2

4

11

2-4 times in a week

2

6

9

8

3

28

Once in a week

4

4

7

2

4

21

Once in a month

3

4

6

6

1

20

Only on occasions

3

5

5

5

2

20

 

14

20

29

23

14

100

Table-10: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

11.745a

16

.761

Likelihood Ratio

11.709

16

.764

Linear-by-Linear Association

1.540

1

.215

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

The research participants were asked to give their views to understand up to what extent they show their loyalty for Coca cola. Furthermore, these results were studied corresponding to their frequency of purchase. It can be interpreted from the above table that customers of Coca cola who frequently purchased above cited drink were rigid for purchasing any specific brand whereas people who were less frequently buying Coca cola products were not rigid for purchasing any specific brand. However, significant consistency in these responses was not observed. Thus, in order to test significant association in the responses, chi square analysis was also applied.

Here, in this section, chi square test seeks to test the significance of the responses by comparing calculated and tabular chi square value at particular degree of freedom. Table-10 demonstrates calculated chi square value at 16 degree of freedom. Here, from the comparison, it was found that tabular value was very low than calculated value therefore, the assumption that there was no significant difference in the responses due to different frequencies of purchase by the Coca cola customers was accepted. This result would further help in drawing appropriate recommendation for the company.

Table-11: Frequency table

You feel that coca-Cola successfully differentiates itself from another soft drink brands

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Strongly Agree

23

23.0

23.0

23.0

Agree

25

25.0

25.0

48.0

Neutral

25

25.0

25.0

73.0

Disagree

20

20.0

20.0

93.0

Strongly Disagree

7

7.0

7.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Interpretation

In the above table, responses of various research participants have been shown in a frequency distribution along with individual and cumulative percentage of the same regarding maintaining uniqueness in the brand. It was observed that nearly 3/4th of the total population of 100 respondents consented that the brand has been successful in maintaining distinctive image over competitors’ soft drink brands.

In this significant portion, almost 25% respondents were neutral about the fact. 20% of the total participants did not agree with the proposition of uniqueness in the brand image. Also, 7 out of 100 respondents strongly denied the above fact and did not feel any differentiation in coke’s brand over its competitors.

Table-12: Frequency table

Coca-cola communicates the experience about the brands instead of products or services

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Strongly Agree

20

20.0

20.0

20.0

Agree

22

22.0

22.0

42.0

Neutral

27

27.0

27.0

69.0

Disagree

20

20.0

20.0

89.0

Strongly Disagree

11

11.0

11.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Interpretation

In the given table, frequency and cumulative percentages based on responses from various research participants have been shown regarding communication quality of Coca-cola. It has been observed from the analysis that respondents with a cumulative percentage of 68% have agreed that Coca-cola emphasizes more on communication about the brand effectiveness.

According to them, instead of promoting and featuring the product and services in advertisement, it focuses on increasing brand image and use the brand to promote the products/services. However, remaining research participants do not agree with the fact that advertisement of coke does not incorporate communication regarding product and services. However, simultaneously they accepted promotion of brand to some extent in advertisements.

Table-13: Frequency table

Coca-cola has implemented strategic brand process in favor of its stakeholders

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Strongly Agree

11

11.0

11.0

11.0

Agree

15

15.0

15.0

26.0

Neutral

30

30.0

30.0

56.0

Disagree

29

29.0

29.0

85.0

Strongly Disagree

15

15.0

15.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Interpretation

The can be interpreted from the above frequency distribution table that majority of respondents have denied the fact that company’s brand strategy process is developed keeping stakeholders in mind. They felt that brand strategy process is implemented solely for the purpose of increasing brand effectiveness and it has no correlation with satisfaction among stakeholders. Therefore, the company needs improvement in the strategic brand process.

It was revealed from the secondary research also that meeting the expectations of customers and serving them with the best quality will develop the sense of belongingness among them. Furthermore, interest of stakeholders must be protected to achieve greater level of brand loyalty strategy of the company.

Table-14: Frequency table

Company has communicated green initiatives and social responsibility to community

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Strongly Agree

26

26.0

26.0

26.0

Agree

24

24.0

24.0

50.0

Neutral

26

26.0

26.0

76.0

Disagree

17

17.0

17.0

93.0

Strongly Disagree

7

7.0

7.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Interpretation

The above table shows the frequencies and respective cumulative percentage of the responses regarding discharge of social responsibility by the company. Out of total 100 research participants, around 3/4th of the respondents have consented about the communication of green measures by the company.

According to them, Coca-cola has always included CSR as an integral part in its vision; the main initiatives include water management policy, Concern for disabled and community & environmental programs. 24% of the total respondents did not agree with the discharge of corporate social responsibility by Coca-cola. The above table demonstrates the effectiveness in recognition of CSR policy and continuous involvement of the company.

Table-15: Frequency table

Coca-cola has extended the brand over a period of time

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Strongly Agree

27

27.0

27.0

27.0

Agree

26

26.0

26.0

53.0

Neutral

19

19.0

19.0

72.0

Disagree

19

19.0

19.0

91.0

Strongly Disagree

9

9.0

9.0

100.0

Total

100

100.0

100.0

 

Interpretation

The above table incorporates the frequency distribution along with cumulative percentage of the responses of various customers of Coca cola in relation to brand extension of Coca cola. It can be interpreted that majority of the customers are updated regarding the brand extension over years.

The above said respondents make a total of cumulative percentage of 72%. It has been agreed by them that the brand has successfully invented the extensions of the same in a vibrant manner over history of around more than 120 years. However, some of the respondents do not agree with the above mentioned statement.

They are of the view that company has been misleading the customers in the name of introducing similar product as new category of the brand. But, it is evident from the feedback of customers for the newly introduced categories that brand has significantly extended. Secondary research supports the results of this study, wherein it was identified that brand extension provides base to the company at the time of launching new product in the market as brand loyal customers are those who try the commodity launched for first time and increases sales volume.

Table-16: Cross frequency table

 

Taste

Total

Very Important

Important

Less Important

Least Important

Not Important

Gender

Male

34

16

5

3

0

58

Female

23

15

3

1

0

42

Total

57

31

8

4

0

100

Table-17: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

1.124a

3

.771

Likelihood Ratio

1.149

3

.765

Linear-by-Linear Association

.039

1

.844

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

The above table gives an idea regarding the factors contributing in the brand loyalty strategies of Coca cola. Further, there are certain factors which may affect their views as provided in the black box model that other stimuli affect behavior of buyer. It was found that both male and female customers of Coca cola had quite similar views for this.

However, it is also important to test the significance of responses across selected demographics. The above chi square table shows that on 3 degree of freedom, the chi square value was 1.124 whereas tabular value of chi square at same degree of freedom was 7.815 which were significantly higher than calculated value. Thus, it can be interpreted that the views of respondents were affected because of different gender groups. Literature review also highlights that a good quality and taste of the product can be treated as a strategy to maintain brand loyalty.

Table-18: Cross frequency table

 

Availability

Total

Very Important

Important

Less Important

Least Important

Not Important

Gender

Male

35

13

10

0

0

58

Female

24

9

7

2

0

42

Total

59

22

17

2

0

100

Table-19: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

2.820a

3

.420

Likelihood Ratio

3.528

3

.317

Linear-by-Linear Association

.512

1

.474

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

It was significant to note in the above cross frequency table that none of the customer was agreeing that availability of Coca cola drinks was not important. Thus, it can be interpreted that availability of the beverages offered by Coca cola was important for customers, which affected their brand loyalty.

While, reviewing the results based on the categorization of gender frequencies, it was found that some of the female customers found it least important to develop brand loyalty. In this context, chi square test was also applied which revealed that at 3 degree of freedom calculated value was less than tabular value therefore, it can be interpreted that the results were not statistically significant to draw any conclusion based on the categorization of gender groups identified for this research.

It was also concluded from literature review that there are four components involved in relation with the brand choice behavior, one of which is input variable. In input variable consumer considers attributes of brand such as quality and availability.

Table-20: Cross frequency table

 

Brand image

Total

Very Important

Important

Less Important

Least Important

Not Important

Gender

Male

36

16

5

1

0

58

Female

24

11

7

0

0

42

Total

60

27

12

1

0

100

Table-21: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

2.154a

3

.541

Likelihood Ratio

2.498

3

.476

Linear-by-Linear Association

.399

1

.528

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

Above table demonstrates that majority of the customers of Coca cola both male and female were finding brand image of the company, the most important for brand loyalty. Therefore, brand loyalty of customers of Coca cola is said to be influenced by the brand image of the company.

However, in order to infer appropriate recommendations for the company, chi square test was also applied which revealed that the chi square value at 3 degree of freedom was 2.154. The obtained value of chi square was further compared with tabular value which revealed that for both male and female, brand image of the company mattered a lot therefore, most of the respondents found it either very important or important.

Table-22: Cross frequency table

`

Price

Total

Very Important

Important

Less Important

Least Important

Not Important

Gender

Male

24

19

9

3

3

58

Female

19

8

11

3

1

42

Total

43

27

20

6

4

100

Table-23: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

3.800a

4

.434

Likelihood Ratio

3.873

4

.423

Linear-by-Linear Association

.011

1

.413

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

Price is one of the major components of marketing mix of a company therefore; importance of this factor in brand loyalty strategies of Coca cola can also be investigated to reach desired objectives in this manuscript. The results show that significant number of male and female customers found price as an important element in building brand loyalty for Coca cola.

However, comparison in the figures reveals that female customers were more in the numbers than male customers. Nonetheless, there may be a possibility that this can be just a matter of chance therefore, chi square test was applied. The results from the application of this tool confirm that the difference in the responses across different gender groups was just a matter of chance.

Furthermore, both male and female customers considered the price element important for building brand loyalty for Coca cola. The results of this study are also supported by the secondary research which states that Price is an important factor as before purchasing products, price of different commodities are compared and this also supports in brand loyalty.

Table-24: Cross frequency table

 

Advertisement

Total

Very Important

Important

Less Important

Least Important

Not Important

Gender

Male

26

19

8

5

0

58

Female

15

12

9

4

2

42

Total

41

31

17

9

2

100

Table-25: Chi square table

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

4.251a

4

.373

Likelihood Ratio

4.954

4

.292

Linear-by-Linear Association

2.322

1

.128

N of Valid Cases

100

 

 

Interpretation

The results of present study provide that majority of the respondents were found advertisement aided the company to build their brand loyalty. However, it was significant to note that some of the female customers did not find advertisement important at all in brand loyalty. Thus, views of male and female buyers of Coca cola drinks were slightly differing due to which statistical tool chi square test was applied using SPSS software.

The results of this test revealed that there was a difference in tabular and calculated chi square value as it was higher than calculated value. Thus, it can be concluded that brand loyalty factors and their importance was indifferent among different demographic groups selected for the study.

Table-26: Descriptive of statistics

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Adding value to the product (Product)

100

1

4

1.53

.643

Attractive promotions (Promotion)

100

1

5

1.54

.834

Offering competitive prices (Price)

100

1

4

1.38

.616

Effective supply chain (Place)

100

1

5

1.77

.952

Social responsibility campaign (Process)

100

1

5

1.96

.968

Attractive window displays (Physical evidence)

100

1

5

1.92

.918

Appropriate brand ambassador (People)

100

1

4

1.45

.672

Interpretation

The above table shows the application of descriptive of statistics test on various statements asked in the survey to a total of 100 research participants. The table demonstrates various measures of descriptive statistics which helps in understanding the underlying distribution of data set.

Here, mean figures demonstrate the average code for the responses. In this study, research participants were asked to rate the effectiveness of present brand strategies of Coca cola on a five point Likert scale ranging from very effective to not effective at all. Here, it is important to note that less average is favorable for the company because it would demonstrate effectiveness in brand building strategies of Coca cola. Various brand loyalty strategies of Coca cola relating to 7Ps were identified.

The table shows that respondents found the product; promotion and people related brand loyalty building strategies of Coca cola were very effective. It can also be interpreted from the table that there was a high consistency in the responses regarding the brand strategies of Coca-cola relating to product, price and promotion.

Thus, overall, it can be said that Coca cola has successfully engaged its customers with its brand by adding value to its customers. However, other strategies were also effective as mean is in all the cases was relatively low but still Coca cola can said to be inefficient in engaging people by social initiatives and attractive window display. Thus, there is a room for improvement for this leading beverage company to reap the higher benefits of greater brand loyalty among its customers.

4.4 Management Interview

Theme-1: Are the brand loyalty building strategies of Coca-cola effective over competitors’ products?

The above pie chart portrays the perception of managers in relation to the effectiveness and competitiveness in building brand loyalty strategies. Brand loyalty carries the power to influence the marketability of the product. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the most appropriate strategy in order to maintain the loyalty of customers towards the brand.

More than half of the managers were satisfied with the present brand loyalty strategies followed by the company. From the results of the secondary research also, it was revealed that the strategies adopted to increase the brand effectiveness have been tested before implementation and found to be suitable in the highly competitive soft drink market.

However, one of the managers was of the view that present strategy is not able to grab the attention of customer at fuller capacity. Therefore, he suggested reconsidering the same and making modifications to arrive at best results.

Theme- 2: What strategies have been adopted in order to increase and maintain brand loyalty?

The managers were asked to highlight the present strategies to build brand loyalty among customers. According to the response of managers, the most important strategy to maintain the brand loyalty is to engage in long term relationships with customers. The same has also been supported through literature review section of the research.

In this context, strategies like knowing customers’ preferences, sharing their experience and meeting their expectations through quality products and services have been adopted. Another strategy of reward system, also supported by secondary research, has been adopted.

Managers expect that the same would persuade the customer to buy the products of the brand again and again. This involves expanding the promotional budget in terms of monetary rewards so that store traffic is increased and thereby repetitive purchases. Also, brand experience creation and value proposition has been given due consideration through the mechanism of social media.

Besides this, managers try to align brand loyalty strategies with the marketing mix of the organization. Therefore, it can be concluded from the above response that the strategies adopted for increasing the brand loyalty are in order and effective.

Theme- 3: Do you feel there is a need of improvement in brand loyalty strategies of company? Why?

In the above pie chart, managers’ responses have been demonstrated in relation to their perception on need for improvement in brand strategy. Substantial numbers of managers have agreed that there is a need to consider modification in current brand strategy.

According to the managers, although the brand strategies that have been adopted are effective enough to cater the expectations of customer, yet the communication of the same requires improvement. Therefore, majority of managers are of the view that some modification as well as addition is required in strategic brand process. This will help to increase the effectiveness of communication regarding the same.

Theme- 4: What recommendations you suggest in order to support the argument in previous question?

In the view of management, the brand strategies have been strategically developed and can prove to be most appropriate in present circumstances but, the improvement is sought upon communication process. The company is required to engage with customers and develop a two way communication channel to ensure long term relationship with customers.

Secondary research also supports this strategy as the same would develop the sense of loyalty for the brand. In this context, it has been suggested by them that the communication should be facilities through social media sources and through brand ambassadors. This will coordinate the brand strategies with current market scenario.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction

It is the last chapter of the dissertation that highlights the findings derived after carrying out the study in appropriate manner and assists reader in understanding about it. Through this chapter it is possible to understand about the real outcomes and on the basis of results recommendations are provided to firm which are effective.

Due to this basic reason, this chapter is regarded as most important as findings from data analysis are shown clearly. In the present study, real outcomes of  the research has been shown in relation with brand loyalty of Coca Cola in the market of UK and on the basis of this recommendations have been provided to business enterprise for improvement. 

5.2 Conclusion

After carrying out the entire it has become easy to understand brand loyalty of Coca cola in the market of UK and all other brand loyalty strategies being adopted by enterprise in order to attract its customers. For conducting study in effective manner various objectives were set which were achieved.

The first objective “To examine the current brand loyalty of Coca Cola, UK” was accomplished where it was found that customers are highly satisfied with coke being purchased by them as it is found in right condition like in chilled form at the time of consumption. Therefore, this increases their satisfaction level and encourages them to consume more quantity. Generally soft drinks are purchased by customers in 2 to 4 times in a week after considering various factors such as price, availability etc.

Products of Coca Cola are easily available in the market of UK and this encourages customers to go for this brand.  Furthermore, company provides experience to the customers about the brands instead of products and services which is also effective as customers perceive Coca Cola as an brand positively and due to this reason they prefer to consumer products of company.

It has been found that organization focuses on need and expectations of its target market and it can be supported from the findings of the literature review as same has been found from secondary study where it has been analyzed that in the era of perfect competition business entity must focus on desires of its target market so that its customers may get reason to buy the product instead of purchasing product of other brands present in the market. Therefore, it can be said that findings of primary research agree with those of secondary one.

“To assess the brand loyalty strategies adopted by soft drink industry, UK” was another objective where it was found that many companies are focusing on product differentiation especially Coca Cola and this directly supports customers in taking purchase decisions. It has analyzed from literature review the decision making process is complex and product differentiation supports in reducing the complexity.

Therefore, companies are focusing on this factor so as to attract large number of customers and in turn have positive impact on sales and overall profitability. Working in favor of society as corporate social responsibility is also one of the major strategy adopted by soft drink firms operating in UK where they are taking initiatives in favor of the surroundings and same can be supported by secondary research.

Through this organizations are able to meet with the expectations of its target market and is supporting in building awareness in the market which is necessarily required in the present era. Some companies have started to implement strategic brand process in favor of its stakeholders but it is not effective in case of company like Coca cola.

Further, this can be supported by findings derived from literature review where quality matters a lot  in the entire industry and by offering best quality soft drink at an affordable price  it is possible for firms to retain its valuable customers for long period of time in the market.

Findings of primary research agree with secondary one as from both it has been found that quality is the most important factor on the basis of which consumer buys product. Therefore, this effective strategy has also been adopted by the business enterprise for their benefit and supports in every possible manner.

Apart from this, firms operating in Soft drink market are focusing on promotional strategies through which different type of benefits are provided to the  customers and in turn it acts as reason for purchasing the soft drink of particular firm. Company like Coca cola has designed effective advertising and promotional strategies that posses capability to affect purchase behavior of its customers and this assist in increasing brand loyalty which is regarded as the ultimate objective of the business enterprise.

With the help of promotional strategies company is being able to interact with its customers and supports in understanding about taste and preference of its target market in better manner. Secondary research  agree with primary one  and has shown that need of customers changes from time to time due to which it is necessary for firm to comply with such needs so as to serve customers in better manner.

Therefore, through this it can be concluded that overall brand loyalty strategies adopted  by Coca Cola and other companies operating in this soft drink industry are effective as they directly influence customers to buy more products and has positive  impact on brand image.  Organization is focusing on taste and quality of its soft drink and it is regarded as one of the effective strategy so as to increase brand loyalty in the market. 

Main stress is on providing unique taste rather than similar one so t hat  customers may go for specific brand  and this leads to rise in profitability level where same has been found from the literature review.

“The last objective to examine the effectiveness of current brand loyalty strategies of Coca Cola, UK” was met where it was found that different brand loyalty strategies have been employed by Coca Cola which are effective and through this company is able to enjoy the benefit of higher profitability and market share in the market of UK. Organization strongly focuses on its price being set for its soft drink as it influences purchase behavior of customers and it is the basic reason behind setting moderate prices for its products.

Company strongly focuses on purchasing power of its customers and in turn this assists in complying with the requirement of target market. Promotional and advertising strategies support company to better serve its target market where all the additional features of products are highlighted which attracts them to purchase more products.

Further, this can be supported with the secondary research where it has been found that promotional strategies of Coca Cola are effective and it is reason behind rise in brand presence of company in different market where operations are being carried out. Product differentiation as a strategy is being adopted by Coca cola where company differentiates all its products from its major competitors so that customers can be easily influenced to buy them and this has supported organization to become leader in the market.

From the secondary research it was identified that Coca Cola carries out its operations in market where perfect competition is present due to which it is differentiation of product is necessarily required as it has direct impact on brand image of the business enterprise.

Findings of primary research agree with secondary one as it has been identified that product differentiation is the necessary in the present eera which Coca Cola strongly focuses one. Through this strategy, company is encouraging its customers to become loyal towards its entire and is leading to stronger customer base in the market.

Organization effectively communicates experience in relation with the brand through various means and main stress is on building brand image in the market by strictly complying with the needs and requirement of its target market. This can be supported from the findings of secondary research where it has been found that development of brand image directly leads to loyalty in the market and helps company to enjoy the benefit of strong customer base etc.

Therefore, findings of primary research agree with those of secondary one. Timely new information is provided by the organization in relation with introduction of new products or any other type of modification done in the existing range of product which assist customer to buy the soft drink offered by the firm. Brand extension as a strategy is supporting Coca Cola to serve its customers in better manner.

Due to this strategy company is being able to attract customers who consumes soft drink of other companies and it is highlighted the overall initiatives taken by firm to satisfy need of its target market in efficient manner. Brand extension has been done by organization by taking feedback from its customers living in the society and this also leads to rsie in loyalty level towards products of Coca Cola in the market of UK.  Further, product, promotion and people related strategies of company are effective where soft drink of company provides full satisfaction and is value for money.

Attractive window display of firm is totally unique where products such as diet coke etc are highlighted in different way through which company provides remarkable experience to its customers in the market of soft drink. Furthermore, secondary research agree with primary one and same has been found as by providing ultimate experience to customers company can retain them for longer period of time. 

Supply chain of firm is also effective where products of Coca Cola are available worldwide which is the key to success. Apart from this, brand ambassador of firm as people has been used as strategy by firm where they support company in highlighting the unique features of product and is considered to be highly effective. Apart from this, managerial interview has shown that brand loyalty strategies of Coca Cola are effective as compared with major competitors prevailing in the market.

At present all the strategies developed are providing support to firm in retaining customers for longer period of time due to which every customer present in UK prefers to consume soft drink of Coca Cola rather than other soft drinks being offered by other companies. Timely present strategies are being modified so that customers may not shift towards other brand and this can badly affect business enterprise. 

5.3 Recommendation

On the basis of conclusion, there are some recommendations present through which it is possible for Coca Cola to increase its brand presence in the market.

  • Firstly, the strategic brand adopted by business enterprise is not at all effective due to which brand effectiveness of company is lesser as compared with other firms. So, it is necessarily required to focus on this process so that organization can easily meet with the expectation of customers and they can be offered best quality product which is the pathway to brand loyalty.
  • Furthermore, factors such as availability of product, price, taste etc must be considered by firm as on the basis of all these factors products are purchased by customers and in turn leads to rise in satisfaction level.
  • Whereas, from the managerial interview conducted it has been found that improvement is required in relation with brand strategy of Coca Cola. Organization has to communicate with its target market in more effective manner and advertising strategies must be developed so that product related information can be reached to customers in short period of time and they can take purchase decision with the help of this.
  • Process of customer engagement of Coca Cola requires improvement and two way communication is required so that business enterprise can know about taste and preference of its target market in more effective manner. Through source such as social media it is possible to interact with customers and information can be acquired in relation with trend, attitude, purchase behavior etc. So, this can lead to rise in brand loyalty and organization can enjoy the benefit of rise in profitability and market share.
  • Furthermore, level of competition is increasing at faster pace so company must strongly focus on promotional strategies and customers must be provided reason to purchase products.
  • Social factor has direct impact on the business operations, so they must be kept on priority at the time of development of business strategy which can lead to rise in loyalty level and positive mouth to mouth publicity in the market.

So these are some of the recommendations that Coca Cola can adopt in order to serve its market in more effective manner and through this company can easily grab opportunities present in the business environment by receiving proper support from customers.          

5.4 Scope for the future research

It is important to provide scope for future research in the manuscript so that its significance can be identified by future researchers. The scope of current study is limited to study of current brand loyalty strategies of Coca cola which presents insightful information on brand loyalty strategies of beverage companies.

Nonetheless, due to limited time and other resources, it has certain boundaries within which it can be used for practical application. Current study is significant for Coca cola and its stakeholders but it does not consider the impact of external business environment on customer loyalty as focus was brought on marketing stimuli elements including product, price, place and promotion.

Thus, it can be extended further by including number of respondents and number of soft drink companies for comparative analysis. This study would serve as the basis for future studies as it serves critical analysis of previous literature and extensive analysis of primary data. Thus, it can be said that present manuscript would help future researchers to extend this study in the similar area.

REFLECTION

Research basically refers to the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach towards new conclusion. Various important elements are present in research with the help of which various studies are being carried out and they supports in reaching to valid conclusion which is necessary. Further, the knowledge linked with research acquired by pursuing MSc(Management Practice) degree has encouraged me to undertake this study.

It has assisted me to select suitable topic where I came across different topics linked with marketing which is one of my areas of interest. So, this supported me in finalizing this topic where main objective with which the present research was carried out was to “assess the current brand loyalty of Coca Cola in market of UK”. Therefore, in order to accomplish this aim the entire study was carried out effectively.

The topic chosen for this study plays most important role in the present era as through brand loyalty companies are able to know about their overall performance in the market where operations are being carried out. Every company is working hard in the market so that its customers may become brand loyal as it directly leads to rise in profitability level and overall market share.

Due to this reason, organizations are strongly focusing on development of strategies so that its customers can be retained for longer period of time. The study has been carried out for firm Coca Cola which is regarded as leader in the market and known for its soft drink being served to the customers.

Furthermore, during the course of my MSc(Management Practice) degree I acquired various skills and knowledge which supports in carrying out different type of research. In order to obtain the master degree I have to study various subjects where research methodology was one of them with the help of which I came to know about tools and techniques being present in the research through which different studies can be carried out in effective manner.

I came to know about various designs, tools of data collection, approaches, analysis of data through various techniques etc. Before studying this subject I was totally unaware about all these kind of information which is considered to be every important.

On the other hand, I was not having proper knowledge linked with different research areas such as philosophy, design etc but by applying effort it became possible for me to understand about these topics. Further, same were applied in research through which all my concepts were quite clear. 

On the other hand, the topic being chosen for entire study is associated with marketing where it has been shown the relevance of brand and I am interested in gaining knowledge linked with marketing by carrying out this type of study. I came to know about the relevance of brand loyalty for company such as Coca Cola and it plays major role in increasing overall performance of the firm in the market where many challenges are present.

Marketing as a subject is liked by me as it is the regarded as the backbone of the firm and without this it is not possible for any firm to survive in the market. Further, after carrying out the present study I came to know the relevance of brand loyalty and the different type of strategies being employed by firms to encourage their customers to become brand loyal. I

n short, the experience of carrying out the study was remarkable and provided me platform to learn various things and assisted in development of areas where I lack.

Further, in order to acquire learning different learning styles are present such as visual learners, auditory learners and kinesthetic one. One of the most effective learning style that I adopted for acquiring learning was auditory where verbal lectures, discussion and talking with others is beneficial. Moreover, I interpreted the underlying meaning of speech through listening to tone of voice and other nuances.

Further, visual learning style was also undertaken by me where I saw the body language and facial expression of customers from whom information was gathered in order to acquire skills and knowledge.

Therefore, in this way the two learning style such as auditory and visual was adopted by me for learning new things. In future my aim is to work in field of marketing so that knowledge and skills acquired through master degree can be applied in the operations of firm for whom I will work.

This study has supported me in career development as I have learned new things such as strategies through which brand loyalty is being built by firm. Before carrying out this study I perceived my communication skill up to the mark but during the research when I have to interact with managers and customers of Coca Cola then it was realized that my communication skills were not up to the mark as I was not able to interact with them and convince them for providing information so that I can work for the accomplishment of aims of the research.

Furthermore, time management skill plays most important role in the research which I already posses and this supported me in every stage of study such as data collection, analyzing data etc. Due to appropriate management of time I was able to complete the work on actual time as allotted by my supervisor. Whereas, my critical thinking skills also assisted me in doing research where I was able to carry out the entire study thoroughly.

Till now, I only acquired theoretical knowledge but this research provided me platform to convert this theory into practical. It is well known fact that theoretical knowledge is of no use if it is not applied practically and this encouraged me to apply my knowledge linked with brand loyalty, its strategies and other models in the research.

The research has shown me the feasible areas where I need to work for my career development as it is well known that no individual is perfect due to which development process may be undertaken on continuous basis.

Further, through this study I got critical idea of applying concepts of research and other type of information in practical form. For analyzing the data, test such as Chi Square was applied in the study and I was having only theoretical knowledge regarding this test.

So, the present study provided me opportunity to apply this test for the accomplishment of aims and objectives of the research. Chi Square test increased my knowledge and now I can confidentially apply this type of test in other studies that will be undertaken in near future.

Further, at the time of conducing study I have to take various decisions regarding data collection, techniques to be taken for analyzing information etc but before undertaking this study I was not good decision maker. Therefore, through this research I was able to take effective decision by carrying out in-depth analysis of the area in relation with whom decision has to be taken.

For collecting of crucial information in the study secondary sources were considered and this improved my knowledge as I understood about the loyalty strategies, promotional tools and overall factors affecting purchase behavior of customers. So, this also increased my knowledge base and supported in development.

The sources considered for obtaining knowledge were fruitful and assisted me in knowing how marketing supports in accomplishment of desired objectives of the organization. On the other, hand during the course of research various barriers were faced by me and it directly declined my motivation level.

Barriers were faced at the time of data collection as I collected information from customers and managers of Coca Cola and it was not easy for me to convince them for providing data especially in case of managers who are not interested in sharing confidential information linked with their firm.

Further, respondents were not having time in providing data, so I managed to convince them so that that may not affect efficiency of my entire study. Therefore, with the help of this I was able to learn about the new ways through which individuals can be convinced so that information can be obtained from them easily.

Whereas, in order to overcome the barrier linked with convincing respondents I took various initiatives where I mainly highlighted main purpose of carrying out this research and through this it was possible for me to involve all the respondents in the study and they took active participation in it.

This will surely support me in future studies at the time of collecting information and can support me in carrying out the study appropriately. Acquiring high amount of skills and knowledge was effective and in turn provided me remarkable experience.

In the entire research it is necessary to manage all the crucial resources which are usually thought of primary and secondary sources. Basically research resources come from individual experiences, books, journals, print media etc. So, I was able to understand the importance of managing all the resources in the research that are considered to be quite crucial and increases overall effectiveness.

Before carrying out this study I was not having in-depth information linked with the research as only theoretical information was present with me. So after applicability of the theoretical information into practical form I was able to understand the appropriate format an structure in which entire study is being carried out. My confidence level increased a lot as compared with past as earlier confidence lacked in me due to which I do not prefer to take initiative.

But after undertaking this study my confidence level improved above expected level as I interacted with various individuals and they supported me to carry out this study. In short I was surprised by my actions and other initiatives taken by me for the accomplishment of aims and objectives of the research. But on the other hand, I have found that more learning is required in relation with the research and skills development.

In case if I will get another chance to conduct other study in future then I will focus on development of stress management skill as during the course of present research I was not able to cope up with stress that rose due to wrong decision taking linked with the study. So, in future I will surely work on this area so that my study will not be hampered due to this.

Furthermore, I will try to gain more knowledge about my favorite subject named marketing so that more researches can be carried out future such as comparison of brand loyalty of different firms etc.

I realized that there is no limit of acquiring knowledge and skills in various areas so individual must try his level best to obtain knowledge from the sources being present. The learning acquired by me through this research is highly valuable and it is not possible to measure its value.

Furthermore, the findings derived after carrying out the study supported me in understanding about the real importance of brand loyalty in the current era. By employing appropriate tools and techniques of research I was able to gain appropriate findings as expected by me.

I came to know about the brand loyalty strategies of Coca Cola and how it is increasing sales volume of the enterprise. Importance of customer satisfaction was known by gathering information from customers of Coca Cola as they were satisfied with the present soft drinks offered by the firm.

Further, I was able to know on what basis recommendations are provided to firm in relation with whom study has been carried out so that customers can be served in better manner.

The findings derived increased my confidence and motivation level as before undertaking study I was not confident whether this research can be carried out  easily and on time or not. But, it was possible and will surely provide me support to undertake different studies in near future also. Furthermore, the action plan developed by me for the study was also effective and provided me support to achieve the targets on time and as per deadline set being set me.   

At last, the self development took place through this study will support me in my employment also as I can apply the knowledge and skills acquired in carrying out operations of the firm where I will work in future. In short it has added value and has assisted me in determining the areas where I was not perfect and was totally unaware about it.

So, such type of remarkable experience has brought drastic change in my life. Finally I want to thank my supervisor who provided me support in every stage of research and the guidance provided helped me a lot to undertake this study.        

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