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Biomedical Science

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Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Main context 2

Conclusion. 3

References. 4

Introduction

The article ‘Novel approaches to developing new antibiotics for bacterial infections’ depicts how antibiotics are an essential part of medicine. A novel antibiotic is a class of antibiotic that destroys resistance genes in bacteria. By this unique approach bacteria in our body can be rendered less harmful. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics was one of the most difficult challenges. Scientists have developed a new generation of antibiotic compounds that do not rouse bacterial resistance.

This new technology can develop a new treatment for curing metabolic disease like obesity (Bonilla & Muniz, 2009). Human body harbors both good and bad bacteria. The antibiotics destroy both the bacteria. The novel antibiotic uses RNA guided nuclease which targets and hunts down the targeted genes inside the bacterial cell. This technology could be administered in the body of the healthy people to prevent the developing of the antibiotic resistance.

Main context

Novel antibiotics are urgently needed in the future to tackle the increase in resistance in bacterial pathogens. To develop new antibiotic it is necessary to identify and exploit the molecular target. New technologies have been developed to recognize new antibacterial targets and to determine whether a gene is essential or not. New technology can be used to access the transcription status of a target at the time of infection (Chen & Lu, 2009). Novel antibiotics are evolving from these genomics-derived targeted screens.

The new challenge is to develop the leads to become part of the next generation of antibiotics. There are two classes of novel antibiotic available in the market, oxazolidinone and cyclic lipopeptide. oxazolidinone and cyclic lipopeptide are active against the gram-positive bacteria MRSA. There are no new classes of phase II and phase III clinical trials and pre-registration stage. As the risk and the cost is more for developing a new class of antibiotic so, there is a shortage of development in the new class of antibiotic (Dougherty & Pucci, 2012). The regulatory agency has recommended the elimination of antibiotic resistance from plasmid DNA vectors to ensure safety.

The development and application of the novel antibiotics have been discussed below. Vectors incorporate a 150 bp RNA-OUT antisense RNA. RNA-OUT suppresses a chromosomally integrated counter-selectable marker to allow plasmid selection of sucrose. The DNA vaccine vectors which are sucrose selectable combine antibiotic-free selection with highly productive fermentation manufacturing, thereby improving the protein and immune response to target antigens.

These vectors are the safe and potent alternative of DNA vaccination. One of the major drawbacks of modern gene therapy and DNA vaccination is the presence of antibiotic resistance genes. A strategy has been discussed below that describes the plasmid selection in bacterial hosts in the absence of a selection marker. To suppress the growth essential gene by RNA, several bacterial strains have to be modified (Coates & Hu, 2007). To hamper the expression of repressor protein an essential gene has to be modified.

Modified Escherichia coli strains are selected by various commercially available plasmids. Designed bacterial strains select and maintain plasmids without the help of selection marker or another additional plasmid sequence. Due to the smaller size of the plasmids, they are safe and prove advantageous for the manufacturer and higher transfection efficiencies. The discovery of prokaryotic drug has proved to be a model success. To understand the potential of drug intervention multiple paradigms have been established in the pharmaceutical industry. No company has taken a ‘genomics approach’ to launch a genomics-based drug on the market.

Drug discovery on microbial extracts is based on isolation of unexploited groups of microorganisms that are good producers of secondary metabolites (Mack, Choffnes & Relman, 2010). The effort may be assisted by molecular genetics. Uncommon actinomycete strains may provide an increased chance of yielding novel structures as their genetics and physiology are poorly understood. Manipulation can be increased by developing vectors that are capable of maintaining large segments of actinomycete DNA. Vectors reconstruct gene cluster from a smaller segment of gene DNA. 

Bacterial infection was controlled by antibiotics and vaccinations. This approach in controlling bacterial infection has greatly improved health. Innovative vaccine technology like reverse vaccinology, novel adjuvants and rationally designed bacterial outer membrane vesicles have the potential to target multi-drug resistant bacteria. New approaches have been developed to deliver small-molecule antibacterial into bacteria (Rajagopal, 2012). Vaccines and antibacterial approaches are needed to deal with the global challenge of antimicrobial resistance.

A concerted research agenda can save a life by preventing life-threatening bacterial infections. Antibiotics are capable of reducing the global burden of bacterial infection. Using antibiotics has created an environment, where it is impossible for the bacteria to survive without overcoming the molecular weapon. The spread of MRSA was a significant threat, which was tackled with the help of continuous efforts of the drug developers. The increased AMR has posed a challenge to discover new antibiotics that will be capable to deal with a bacterial infection. Recombinant DNA has allowed the production of hepatitis B vaccine in yeast.

The large production of the vaccination can prevent the infection and consequent liver cancer worldwide (Silverstein, Silverstein & Nunn, 2009). Recombinant DNA allows the manipulation of bacteria and viruses along with the easy production of recombinant antigens. This raises the possibility of the gram-negative bacteria to develop engineered outer membrane, recombinant viruses, and viral vectors.

Before the introduction of antibiotics, acute bacterial infection had high mortality rate. After the introduction of antibiotics the harmful effect of bacterial infection was inhibited. The bacterial resistance had made the standard treatment ineffective and had increased the risk of infection. The novel antibiotics have strengthened the efforts of genome sequencing to control bacterial resistance. The future will include approaches based on re-conceptualization of resistance, disease and prevention.

Overusing of antibiotics can prove fatal. In hypersensitive patients the use of antibiotics should be avoided. Some drugs lose their effectiveness when taken along with antibiotics. The low oestrogen pill may lose its contraceptive eect if taken along with antibiotic. Whole-genome sequencing can influence the choice of antibiotics, with the shortage of novel antibiotics more resistant pathogen mechanism has to be developed.

Conclusion

The antibiotics were incapable of destroying the resistant gene in the bacteria. The novel antibiotics have been developed to destroy the resistant gene in the bacteria. The novel antibiotics only target the bad bacteria present in the body while causing no harm to the good bacteria in the body. The discovery of novel antibiotic has met many scientific challenges that were in favor of developing new treatment technology. The novel antibiotics do not trigger the developed antibiotic resistant. 

References

  • Bonilla, A., & Muniz, K. (2009). Antibiotic resistance (5th ed.). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Chen, J., & Lu, X. (2009). Novel prediction of interactive mode between antibiotics and their DNA/protein targets based on the antibiotic structure parameters. Talanta79(2), 129-133. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.02.022
  • Coates, A., & Hu, Y. (2007). Novel approaches to developing new antibiotics for bacterial infections. British Journal Of Pharmacology152(8), 1147-1154. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707432
  • Dougherty, T., & Pucci, M. (2012). Antibiotic Discovery and Development (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US.
  • Mack, A., Choffnes, E., & Relman, D. (2010). Antibiotic resistance (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
  • Rajagopal, K. (2012). DNA Technology (6th ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
  • Silverstein, A., Silverstein, V., & Nunn, L. (2009). DNA (4th ed.). Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books.

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