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An alphanumeric expression included in the body of work and intellectually done for entering the section of Bibliography and references. Such an expression gets referred to as a citation. It is done to acknowledge the work others have already done on the topic of relevance. A citation is generally documentation of the sources used either for a published or unpublished work. A citation helps the readers to relate to their topic; they are further interested in research. It gives them an idea of the research work already done in the context of their subject.

Citations are relevant as they reflect the honesty beneath the intellectual capacity. They help in featuring the work, which is not original by citing the correct sources. Appropriate citations assist in avoiding plagiarism in paper. You can check the plagiarism in your paper with the help of our plagiarism checker.

Moreover, it allows the readers to independently determine whether the materials referred, actually supports the arguments made by the author. Citations, in a way, help to measure the vigour and reliability of the content used by the writer to justify his argument. Secondary research requires citations mainly from secondary sources, which include articles, journals, and books. Universities look forward to secondary study and depend upon the citations made in the research paper. Citations are essential and add value to the total score of a research paper. Hence, citations and in-text citations get efficiently done in the reference list and in-text while formulation a research paper.

Several drawbacks are associated with citations, which include citations of Honor, citations based on Circumstances, Discriminatory citations and citations relating to Selection and Arbitration. The general citations pledge to a particular format relating to citations, which is easily understandable by the readers. Citation content varies with the type of source and includes books, journals, newspapers, websites, plays, poems, and interviews.  Citations also involve unique identifiers based on the kind of work they refer.

International Standard book number, serial number, and serial item and even the identifiers of contribution. There are particular items and volumes which get connected with these identifiers. So, to make your research look authenticate and informative, we provide you a detailed idea and guideline about the citations.


There exist mainly two types of citation systems namely-Vancouver and Parenthetical referencing. Vancouver referencing system uses numbers in sequence in the way of text, which is either put in brackets or is superscripted. The numbers are either footnotes or endnotes and provide the details of a source. Whereas, Parenthetical referencing, also referred to as Harvard referencing, includes the full or partial format of writings. The citations in-text are closed in brackets and enclosed within paragraphs.

In citation naming, the numbers inserted are superscripted at the point of reference. The numbering of citations is done as per the works referred to at the end of the whole research document. The writers alphabetically arrange this list. Citations, therefore, are styles that get categorized into formats that are general to the Humanities subjects and Science subjects. A reasonable amount of overlap gets required for citations in Humanities and the Sciences. Individual styles like Chicago Style is quite flexible, and they include both the parenthetical as well as the note format of citation. Other forms include MLA and APA styles, which are in relevance to a particular citation system.

Citations give authenticity to work. It gets observed that, if there happens to be a work that has plagiarism in them, then the work does not meet the University standards and lags behind the competition to pursue good academic work. Writers today have been emphasizing on plagiarism –free work and relevant original content. A writer can show his efficiency of skills only when he delivers original content. Several guides specify the sequence of appearance. For instance, a paper looks authentic when it has a date of publication, title, and page numbers. Proper, correct punctuation marks should follow all this. The write up should even use appropriate quotation marks and italicize the text wherever applicable.


Citations are an integral part of any paper. A paper is published when it has all the components of a proper citation. A cited article gets always preferred in every sphere of research. The best are the research papers that get mentioned adequately along with their date of publication, publisher, and the relevant book information. A paper cited correctly makes your research valid and helps you secure good grades in the Universities.

A research paper looks efficient and meticulous when the citations get done aptly. The citations of APA and MLA style get commonly used and are used by almost every research institution. If the citation requirements do not get mentioned in the assignment rubric, then we, by default, use the APA style for referencing. A research paper looks incomplete without referencing. Hence, it becomes mandatory to cite your references so that the reader gets to know about the authentic sources you have used in writing the paper.

An essential rubric has the requirement of efficient referencing mentioned in the requirement of the paper. Citations are undoubtedly a very crucial element of any assignment. Citations require a very minute detailing of punctuation marks. The nitty-gritty has to be taken into consideration while doing the referencing for a research paper. The whole assignment looks complete with proper referencing and in-text citation. Citations can help you prevent plagiarism.

The exciting component of citation is that the readers if they feel interested, can go back to the sources to read further. Citations make the writing more credible. By showing how effectively one has conducted the research, there is a high chance of your arguments being more reliable. Arguments make the research more analytical. It instigates the readers to have an insight into the topic, and citations primarily help them. The citations show that the researcher has taken into account a wide array of opinions before formulating his argument. 


An academic assignment looks incomplete without citations. Scholars debate on ideas through works for years, and citing those works in your research paper is a form of respect you as a researcher give to those who have already engaged themselves in the topic before you. Citations can only be done by experts who are good at studying and analyzing the research papers. The format of a research paper may vary, and so does the citation format. Citation thus brings out the research capabilities in the researcher.

The most commonly used form of citations are:

The APA styled writings structures and formats the work of the writers and suggested ways to decrease biases in language and decrease plagiarism in work. APA style takes into account the writings done in the fields of Psychology, Nursing, Business, Communications, and Engineering. It addressed the making of draft manuscripts that get prepared for publication in a journal and even made ready to include the paper in the course curriculum.

Harvard citation is also known as the author-date referencing style where there exist instances of general citations in Harvard style and recommend citations for a common purpose. Harvard citation includes three parts of citation- in-text citation, list of references, and footnotes. Footnotes are generally used to expand the idea, which cannot be described in-text. Such texts usually break the flow of the primary purpose the author is trying to convey to its readers. Harvard style of citation, therefore, can be used in Social Sciences, Health Sciences, Humanities.

The Chicago style of citation is a preferred citation system for History and Social Sciences. It provides the writer with a scope to add information relevant to the content and provide annotations to the sources they refer to in their writing. Footnotes are located at the bottom of the page as they are a part of the main text on the same page. The Bibliography can be attached at the end of each chapter, though it appears at the end of the whole documented work. The  Chicago system uses both in-text citations or footnotes or endnotes. It further provides information about in-text citations by giving the page numbers or the publication years.

The Modern Language Association style provides instructions and instances to form footnotes and bibliographies in papers of research. It even includes commands on punctuation, research methods, and guidelines on the final paper formatting.


Citation of sources should be done when:

  • a paraphrasing of someone else's idea is done;
  • there happens a mention of others' opinions;
  • Summarizing a source;
  • quoting the exact words of someone;
  • using numerical data and statistics, images or diagrams, videos, multimedia, animation, audio recording; or,
  • a mention of a fact gets made without having any general information about it.

Hence, citations play a significant role in formulating a research paper. This guide list will perhaps help you identify the relevance of citation and improve the quality of your research work, which looks authenticate and informative.

Hence, citations play a significant role in formulating a research paper. This guide list will perhaps help you identify the relevance of citation and improve the quality of your research work, which looks authenticate and informative.

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